This section focuses on policy and legislative developments in OECD countries, as well as Bulgaria, Lithuania and Romania, during 2008 and 2009. In the absence of major waves of migration, the period was dominated politically by responses to the economic
downturn. The downturn led to a number of migration policy developments ‐ usually in the form of stricter labour migration policy ‐ although much legislative or operational change that occurred was a continuation or completion of ongoing review and reform. Some
governments undertook comprehensive reviews of existing policy frameworks; others made substantial innovations; elsewhere changes were limited to minor updating of existing systems or the introduction of selected new measures. In the OECD countries which are also members of
the European Union and/or the EFTA, some policy developments were influenced by the implementation of the EU acquis.