This chapter describes the complex functioning of the brain when one develops numeracy, including comprehension of the concept of numbers, simple arithmetic operations, and early explorations in algebra. This is used to draw implications for mathematics instruction.
It also describes the barriers to learning mathematics that have a neurological basis (called dyscalculia, the equivalent of dyslexia for mathematics). This chapter is relevant to parents, teachers and policy makers who are interested in understanding and improving
numeracy and mathematic education.