Why should the OECD governments be concerned with women in scientific careers? According to OECD Deputy Secretary‐General Berglind Ásgeirsdóttir, who opened the workshop, the available data show that the number of female students enrolled in science
courses is much higher than the number of women actually employed in research occupations. There is thus a risk that much of the social and individual investment in human capital is lost if a large part of that investment does not find itself participating in economic activities.
Another reason for concern about women in science has to do with achieving equality between men and women in all walks of life, a societal goal with a long historical process in OECD countries. Arguably, women bring in different perspectives and research interests and as
such can contribute to improving the quality of research. Furthermore, scientific integrity itself depends on non‐discrimination.