This chapter discusses key similarities between urban and rural settings and the implications for adaptation. In particular, it looks at the fact that adaptation is already happening; it underscores the strong link between poverty alleviation and adaptation; it
states the need for "good development" and "good governance"; and it examines the roles, comparative advantages and limitations of local governments, the role of communities and civil society as well as the role of the private sector. Finally,
it discusses the key differences between rural and urban settings and their implications for adaptation.