In Russia's legal framework, there are legislative acts which govern environmental protection and use of natural resources in general. They set cross‐cutting requirements and provide for the overall framework of environmental management. Among them,
the key act is the Federal Law "On Environmental Protection" of 2002 that superseded a similar law which had been in effect since 1991. It stipulated a wide range of environmental policy instruments and introduced new concepts. The law required the adoption of many
implementing regulations, a number of which are still not in place.