With the discovery of radioactivity and ionizing radiation at the turn of the twentieth century, mankind broke new ground in science and technology. These discoveries, which we now call the "dawn of the nuclear age",1 paved the way for hundreds of
scientists and engineers in their quest to improve our standard of living through progress in science. During the last century, the research they carried out and the tools they designed have provided modern societies with unprecedented progress in a variety of fields, from
medicine and agriculture to electricity production and industrial uses.2 Unfortunately, this progress came at a high price to humanity: the making of an atomic bomb.