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Open Access Evaluation of a new and simple classification for endoscopic sinus surgery

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In 2013, the Japanese Rhinologic Society proposed a simple classification for endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). This classification consists of five procedures (type I, fenestration of the ostiomeatal complex, with uncinectomy and widening of the natural ostium; type II, single-sinus procedure, with manipulating the inside of the sinus; type III, polysinus procedure; type IV, pansinus procedure; type V, extended procedure beyond the sinus wall). The clinical relevance of this classification in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and paranasal sinus cyst was evaluated.

Study Design:

A retrospective validation study.


A total of 122 patients (195 sinuses) who underwent ESS in Okayama University Hospital in 2012 were enrolled. The relationships between the ESS classification and the clinical course, including the operation time, bleeding amounts during surgery and postoperative changes of olfaction, the computed tomography (CT) score, and nasal airway resistance were analyzed.


A total of 195 ESS procedures were classified into type I (n = 3), type II (n = 17), type III (n = 91), type IV (n = 82), and type V (n = 2). The major phenotypes of type II, III, and IV ESS were paranasal sinus cyst (68%), CRS without nasal polyps (77%), and CRS with nasal polyps (55%), respectively, and the difference was significant. The degree of ESS based on this classification was positively and significantly correlated with the operation time and bleeding amounts. As a whole, olfaction, CT score, and nasal airway resistance were significantly improved after surgery. The degree of improvement was similar between type III and type IV ESS.


This simple classification for ESS reflected the perioperative burden of the disease.
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Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis; classification; endoscopic sinus surgery; paranasal sinus cyst

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: From the Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan 2: Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Kagawa Rosai Hospital, Marugame, Japan 3: Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu, Japan

Publication date: 2017-10-01

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  • In the fields of rhinology & allergy, as in all medical fields, there is a need for a greater number of journals which publish in the open access format. The underlying spirit of this format is to break down the barriers to knowledge sharing. Allergy & Rhinology, was created to serve this need; and is proud to take the lead in publishing quality research work as an experiment in the open format. As long as the fiscal model works, the Journal shall allow all users the right to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles.

    The academic standard of Allergy & Rhinology is designed to be no different than traditional subscription-based, scientific and scholarly journals in that the quality of the research work which it publishes shall meet the rigors of peer-review and other scholarly quality controls.

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