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Transforming growth factor beta: A role in the upper airway and rhinosinusitis—Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus‐induced apoptosis with pulmonary alveolar cells

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Background:

There is a link with the upper and lower airway and disruption of alveolar epithelial cells, which is a potential trigger for the reactivation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) and induced characteristic airway changes associated with allergic asthma. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a common inhalant indoor allergen and is known for causing allergic rhinitis and airway inflammation. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is a major participant in the airway remodeling of asthma, a component of cellular stress response pathways, and enhanced epithelial immunoreactivity is known to occur in allergic rhinitis.

Methods:

In this study, we show the ability of D. pteronyssinus allergens from dialyzed standardized immunotherapy extract to induce apoptosis and increase TGF-beta1 secretion in a confluent A549 cell line model. A549 cells were treated with either 600 AU/mL dialyzed D. pteronyssinus immunotherapy extract (eDp) or Ctl media (Ctl) for 24 hours. Cells and supernatants were collected, washed, and treated with Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit II (BD Pharmingen, La Jolla, CA) and then analyzed by flow cytometry. TGF-beta1 secretion was determined by ELISA using cell culture supernatants.

Results:

The eDp group showed a fourfold increase in early apoptotic cells with a twofold increase in late apoptotic cells versus the Ctl group, along with a 1.65-fold increase of TGF-beta1.

Conclusion:

eDp induced viable A549 cells to undergo apoptosis determined by flow cytometry analysis with a significant increase in TGF-beta1 secretion compared with Ctl.
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Keywords: A549 cell line; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; TGF-beta1; airway remodeling; allergen; alveolar epithelium; annexin V; apoptosis; asthma; epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit; flow cytometry; rhinitis

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Brooklyn, New York, USA

Publication date: 01 July 2011

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