Some patients with infantile atopic dermatitis (AD) achieve remission around 1 year old, but in others it persists. The difference between them is unclear. We performed a birth cohort study to find the markers predicting the outcome of infantile AD. We followed up a cohort (n = 314)
from birth to 14 months of age, and cord blood was taken from the participants. Some of them (n = 144) had a physical examination and a blood test at 6 and 14 months of age. The subjects who had AD at 6 months (n = 34) were divided into two groups, named the transient group (those who had
no AD at 14 months of age; n = 16) and the persistent group (those who still had AD at 14 months of age; n = 18). Then, laboratory data were compared between these two groups. Percentage of CD8 in cord blood lymphocytes and total IgE at 6 months of age in the persistent group was significantly
higher than those of the transient group. The area under the curves of a receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.792 (p = 0.007) and 0.722 (p = 0.027). In the persistent group, total IgE, percentages of T-helper (Th) 2 and phytohemagglutinin-induced IL-4 production from peripheral
blood mononuclear cells at 14 months of age were also significantly higher than those of the transient group. Thus Th2 polarization in the persistent group was confirmed. In clinical use, total IgE at 6 months of age is the most useful predictive marker to know the outcome of infantile AD. The clinical trial registration ID is UMIN000002926.
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