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Free Content The upper and lower airways: The epidemiological and pathophysiological connection

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The upper and lower airways do not exist as anatomically and functionally distinct areas. There are important relationships between both the nose and the paranasal sinuses and asthma. Both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis may impact bronchial asthma. The patient with rhinitis should be observed carefully for the development of asthma, and those with asthma should be considered to have either rhinitis or rhinosinusitis.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; airway hyperreactivity; asthma; connection; epidemiology; inflammation; lower airway; pathophysiology; rhinosinusitis; upper airway

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Division of Immunobiology, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunobiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Publication date: November 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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