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Mediators and cytokines in allergic and viral-triggered rhinitis

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Intermittent allergic rhinitis and common cold constitute frequent conditions and show similar clinical symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of cytokines in the nasal fluid of patients with acute symptoms caused by allergic and viral rhinitis. Nasal secretions were analyzed by immunosorbent assay techniques using a cytokine panel assay and routine ELISA. Allergic patients had significantly higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), interleukin (IL)-5, and tryptase. Significantly elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-7, IL-17, interferon [IFN] , and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) as well as chemokines for cellular infiltration (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1), factors for cellular proliferation (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]), and elastase were found in viral rhinitis. IL-10 was only detectable in viral rhinitis. IL-4 was significantly higher in patients with viral rhinitis than allergic rhinitis, and IL-5 was significantly elevated in viral rhinitis compared with controls. In viral-triggered rhinitis, we detected a predominantly Th1-type cytokine pattern with potent proinflammatory mediators. Factors reflecting a neutrophil and eosinophil immune response, due to IL-5, IL-8, GM-CSF, ECP, and elastase were shown. Nasal secretions of patients with allergic rhinitis showed highest concentrations of tryptase, IL-5, and ECP, reflecting a mast cell and eosinophil immune response. Nasal secretion levels of IL-4 did not show highest levels in allergic rhinitis but did in viral rhinitis. IL-4 also may play a role in limiting inflammatory processes by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; ECP; G-CSF; IL-5; TNF; cytokines; interferon; nasal secretion; tryptase; viral rhinitis

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany 2: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Katharinenhospital Stuttgart, Germany

Publication date: 2007-07-01

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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