Azelastine's Inhibition of Histamine and Tryptase Release from Human Umbilical Cord Blood–Derived Cultured Mast Cells as well as Rat Skin Mast Cell–Induced Vascular Permeability: Comparison with Olopatadine
Mast cells are involved in early and late-phase reactions by releasing vasoactive molecules, proteases, and cytokines. Azelastine and olopatadine are histamine 1 receptor (H-1R) antagonists with antiallergic effects present in the ophthalmic solutions Optivar and Patanol, respectively. Because it is difficult to obtain animal or human conjunctival tissue, we first investigated the effect of these compounds on histamine and tryptase release from cultured human mast cells (CHMCs) grown out of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells. Sensitized CHMCs were pretreated with various concentrations of azelastine or olopatadine for 5 minutes. Then, CHMCs were challenged with anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the released mediators were quantitated. The greatest inhibition of mediator release was seen when CHMCs were pretreated with 24 M of azelastine or 133 M of olopatadine (2% dilution of azelastine or 5% olopatadine original ophthalmic solutions, respectively). We then studied the drug concentrations that gave optimal results on skin vasodilation induced by the mast cell secretagogue compound 48/80. An intradermal injection of 48/80 in rats, to which Evan's blue had been administered via the tail vein, induced substantial dye extravasation. Pretreatment of the injection site for 5 minutes with either 24 M of azelastine or 133 M of olopatadine completely prevented extravasation; this effect was quantitated also by fluorometric assessment of Evan's blue extracted in formamide. Evaluation of skin mast cells from injected sites showed that mast cell degranulation was inhibited greatly. These results indicate that on an equimolar basis, azelastine was a more potent inhibitor than olopatadine of both CHMC and rat skin mast cells activation.
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Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: 01 January 2002
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