Update on the Development and Use of Viral and Bacterial Vaccines for the Prevention of Acute Otitis Media

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Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most frequent diagnosis in physician offices among children 1- 4 years of age. Viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections (i.e., respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], influenza virus, parainfluenza virus [PIV], and others) play an important role in the development of AOM. Prevention of infections with these viral pathogens likely would reduce the incidence of AOM. In three previous studies, influenza virus vaccines showed 30 -36% efficacy against the development of AOM. Vaccines to prevent infections with RSV and PIV type 3 are undergoing clinical testing at this time. The three major bacterial pathogens causing AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, licensed in the United States in 2000, was shown in two pivotal trials to reduce the incidence of all causes of AOM by 6%, pneumococcal AOM by 34%, and pneumococcal AOM caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine by 57%. Currently, vaccines against NTHi and M. catarrhalis are under development.

Document Type: Regular Paper

Publication date: November 1, 2001

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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