If you are experiencing problems downloading PDF or HTML fulltext, our helpdesk recommend clearing your browser cache and trying again. If you need help in clearing your cache, please click here . Still need help? Email help@ingentaconnect.com

Open Access Fortification of flour with folic acid

 Download
(PDF 218kb)
 
Download Article:

Abstract:

Background: After randomized, controlled trials established that consumption of folic acid before pregnancy and during the early weeks of gestation reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancy, the United States Public Health Service recommended in 1992 that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 g folic acid daily. In 1998, folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal grain product flour was fully implemented in the United States and Canada.

Objective: To provide guidance on national fortification of wheat and maize flours to prevent 50 to 70% of the estimated 300,000 NTD-affected pregnancies worldwide.

Methods: An expert workgroup reviewed the latest evidence of effectiveness of folic acid flour fortification and the safety of folic acid.

Results: Recent estimates show that in the United States and Canada, the additional intake of about 100 to 150 g/day of folic acid through food fortification has been effective in reducing the prevalence of NTDs at birth and increasing blood folate concentrations in both countries. Most potential adverse effects associated with folic acid are associated with extra supplement use not mandatory fortification. Fortification of wheat flour has a proven record of prevention in other developed countries. In 2009, 51 countries had regulations written for mandatory wheat flour fortification programs that included folic acid.

Conclusions: NTDs remain an important cause of perinatal mortality and infantile paralysis worldwide. Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has proved to be one of the most successful public health interventions in reducing the prevalence of NTD-affected pregnancies. Most developing countries have few, if any, common sources of folic acid, unlike many developed countries, which have folic acid available from ready-to-eat cereals and supplements. Expanding the number of developed and developing countries with folic acid flour fortification has tremendous potential to safely eliminate most folic acid-preventable NTDs.

Keywords: DEFICIENCY; FLOUR; FOLIC ACID; FORTIFICATION

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • Established in 1978, the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation.

    The focus of the journal is to highlight original scientific articles on nutrition research, policy analyses, and state-of-the-art summaries relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin's 2012 Impact Factor: 2.106
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Rights and Permissions
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content

Tools

Favourites

Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more