A review of interventions based on dietary diversification or modification strategies with the potential to enhance intakes of total and absorbable zinc
Authors: Gibson, Rosalind S.; Anderson, Victoria P.
Source: Food & Nutrition Bulletin, Volume 30, Supplement 1, March 2009 , pp. 108S-143S(36)
Abstract:Dietary diversification or modification has the potential to prevent deficiencies of zinc and other coexisting limiting micronutrients simultaneously, without risk of antagonistic interactions. In this review, we have addressed the following. The first section focuses on strategies with the potential to enhance intake and/or bioavailability of zinc, and includes interventions (with and without nutrition education) based on agriculture, production or promotion of animal-source foods through animal husbandry or aquaculture, and commercial and household processing strategies to enhance zinc absorption. Outcome indicators include intakes of foods or nutrients (although rarely zinc) and, in some cases, zinc status, or zinc-related functional responses. The next two sections address whether dietary diversification or modification can achieve increases in absorbable zinc that are sufficient to enhance zinc status or zinc-related functional responses in breastfed infants and toddlers and in older children and women of reproductive age. Evidence for the impact of dietary diversification or modification on behavior change and on nutritional status in the short and long term, and the possible role of modifying factors (e.g., baseline nutritional status, socioeconomic status, infection, sex, age, and life-stage group) is the emphasis of the next section. The following section highlights the evidence for three potential adverse effects of dietary diversification or modification: aflatoxin contamination from germinated cereals, loss of water-soluble nutrients, and displacement of breastmilk. Finally, an example of a dietary diversification or modification program (Homestead Food Production) developed and implemented by Helen Keller International is given, together with the critical steps needed to scale up dietary diversification or modification for programs and future research needs.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: March 1, 2009
- Established in 1978, the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation. The focus of the journal is to highlight original scientific articles on nutrition research, policy analyses, and state-of-the-art summaries relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world.
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