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Background. Ultra Rice grains are micronutrient-fortified, extruded rice grains designed to address specific nutritional deficiencies in populations where rice is a staple food. Vitamin A and some of the B vitamins, as well as iron and zinc, are target nutrients for fortification through Ultra Rice technology. Vitamin A is sensitive to degradation. Therefore, the original Ultra Rice formulations included stabilizers, some of which were not approved as food additives in all of the receiving markets. Objective. To develop a new antioxidant system for improving vitamin A storage stability in Ultra Rice grains, while complying with international food regulations. Methods. Ten formulations were prepared containing various combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants, as well as moisture stabilizers. Accelerated vitamin A storage stability tests were conducted at 25°, 35°, and 45°C with 70% to 100% relative humidity. Results. The most stable samples contained one or more phenolic antioxidants, a water-soluble antioxidant, and stabilizing agents. The best results were obtained by using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in combination with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the hydrophobic antioxidants and ascorbic acid as the hydrophilic anti-oxidant. Citric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) were used to chelate metal ions and to stabilize moisture, respectively. The best formulations retained more than 85% and approximately 70% of the added vitamin A at 25° and 45°C, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. Conclusions. The best antioxidant system, composed of generally accepted food additives, improved vitamin A stability while reducing the price, thus greatly improving the commercial viability of Ultra Rice grains for use as a rice fortificant.
Established in 1978, the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation. The focus of the journal is to highlight original scientific articles on nutrition research, policy analyses, and state-of-the-art summaries relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin's 2012 Impact Factor: 2.106