Skip to main content

Open Access Variation in the diets of Filipino women over 9 months of continuous observation

Download Article:
(PDF 168.1 kb)


Background. The variability in habitual intakes of most components in the Philippine diet is unknown.

Objective. To perform a quantitative evaluation of the traditional Philippine diet using data collected over an extended period of time. We sought to identify seasonal variations and within-subject components of variation in nutrient intake.

Methods. A quantitative evaluation of the Philippine diet was conducted in convents in metropolitan Manila as part of an efficacy trial to examine biofortified rice as an approach to improve iron nutritional status. Weighed food intakes were conducted on 54 days in each of more than 300 religious sisters over 9 months in 10 convents. The sisters consumed their habitual diets except for the substitution of one variety of rice for another.

Results. More than 40% of calories were derived from rice, with protein from meat and fish comprising 18% of calories. There were significant variations in macronutri- ent and micronutrient intakes across seasons of the year, with more rice consumed in the wet season and more fruits, eggs, milk, and beverages consumed in the dry season. The day-to-day within-subject variation (CV) in median intake was 23% for energy, 31% for protein, 42% for iron, and 138% for vitamin A.

Conclusions. These novel data show that traditional Filipino dietary patterns have substantial individual variation and are inadequate in certain micronutrients. This quantitative evaluation of diet can provide a reference point for dietary adequacy.


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Established in 1978, the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation.

    The focus of the journal is to highlight original scientific articles on nutrition research, policy analyses, and state-of-the-art summaries relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin's 2012 Impact Factor: 2.106

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Rights and Permissions
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more