Skip to main content

Open Access Vitamin A and carotenoid toxicity

Download Article:
(PDF 201.4 kb)


Large differences in time and dose needed to induce hypervitaminosis A have been observed. High doses of vitamin A in food and oily solutions are well tolerated, whereas emulsified preparations have higher toxicity. Chronic hypervitaminosis seems to be induced following daily doses of 300,000 to 600,000 IU of vitamin A (90–180 mg of retinol) in oily preparations for many months or years, whereas teratogenicity may be induced by daily doses as low as 40,000 IU of vitamin A (12 mg of retinol) in oil during the first trimester. For the provitamin A, β-carotene, serious adverse effects have been reported in large-scale prospective randomized trials: four years of supplementation with 20 to 30 mg β-carotene per day was associated with increased risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease among smokers and workers exposed to asbestos. These results strongly suggest that high doses of β-carotene should not be recommended for any group until the safety of such doses can be established.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2001

More about this publication?
  • Established in 1978, the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation.

    The focus of the journal is to highlight original scientific articles on nutrition research, policy analyses, and state-of-the-art summaries relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin's 2012 Impact Factor: 2.106

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Rights and Permissions
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more