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Genetic differentiation of wild and cultivated populations: diversity of Coffea canephora Pierre in Uganda

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Abstract:

Coffea canephora Pierre ex Frohener is a perennial plant originated from Africa. Two main groups, Guinean and Congolese, have already been identified within this species. They correspond to main refugia in western and central Africa. In this paper we present the analysis of a region that has not yet been studied, Uganda. Two wild, one feral (once cultivated but abandoned for many years), and two cultivated populations of C. canephora from Uganda were evaluated using 24 microsatellite markers. Basic diversity, dissimilarity and genetic distances between individuals, genetic differentiation between populations, and structure within populations were analysed. Expected heterozygosity was high for wild compartments (0.48 to 0.54) and for cultivated and feral ones (0.57 to 0.59), with the number of private alleles ranging from 12 for cultivated genotypes to 37 for a wild compartment. The Ugandan samples show significant population structuring. We compared the Ugandan populations with a representative sample of known genetic diversity groups within the species using 18 markers. Coffea canephora of Ugandan origin was found to be genetically different from previously identified diversity groups, implying that it forms another diversity group within the species. Given its large distribution and extremely recent domestication, C. canephora can be used to understand the effect of refugia colonization on genetic diversity.

Coffea canephora Pierre ex Frohener est une plante pérenne originaire d’Afrique. Deux groupes de diversité, les Guinéens et les Congolais, ont déjà été identifiés chez cette espèce. Ils correspondent à des zones refuges importantes en Afrique occidentale et centrale. Dans cet article, nous présentons l’analyse d’une région jamais étudiée auparavant, l’Ouganda. Deux populations sauvages, une férale et deux populations cultivées ont été analysées avec 24 marqueurs microsatellites. L’hétérozygotie attendue était forte, de 0,48 à 0,54 pour les populations sauvages, et de 0,57 à 0,59 pour les cultivées et les férales, avec un nombre d’allèles spécifiques de 12 pour les génotypes cultivés à 37 pour un compartiment sauvage. Les échantillons d’Ouganda montrent une forte structuration en populations. Dix-huit marqueurs ont été utilisés pour comparer les populations de caféiers ougandais à celles des autres groupes de diversité déjà identifiés chez l’espèce. Les génotypes de C. canephora d’Ouganda s’avèrent différents de ceux des autres groupes préalablement identifiés, ils forment donc un nouveau groupe de diversité de l’espèce. Compte tenu de sa grande zone de répartition et de sa domestication extrêmement récente, cette espèce nous permet d’avoir une bonne image de la dynamique des refuges et de ses conséquences sur la diversité génétique.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2009

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  • From its inception in 1957, this international cytogenetics journal has catered to the research areas of the members of the Genetics Society of Canada; traditionally, these have included agriculture, entomology, genetics/cytogenetics, and evolutionary mechanisms. The contents of the journal have evolved as contributors developed new technologies and interests. A 20-member Editorial Board is composed of scientists from around the world. Reviews and commentary from respected experts are often featured.
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