Survey of genome size in 28 hydrothermal vent species covering 10 families

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Abstract:

Knowledge of genome size is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources. To better understand the origins and effects of DNA gains and losses among species, it is important to collect data from a broad taxonomic base, but also from particular ecosystems. Oceanic thermal vents are an interesting model to investigate genome size in very unstable environments. Here we provide data estimated by flow cytometry for 28 vent-living species among the most representative from different hydrothermal vents. We also report the genome size of closely related coastal decapods. Haploid C-values were compared with those previously reported for species from corresponding orders or infraorders. This is the first broad survey of 2C values in vent organisms. Contrary to expectations, it shows that certain hydrothermal vent species have particularly large genomes. The vent squat lobster Munidopsis recta has the largest genome yet reported for any anomuran: 2C = 31.1 pg = 30.4 × 109 bp. In several groups, such as Brachyura, Phyllodocida, and Veneroida, vent species have genomes that clearly rank at the high end of published values for each group. We also describe the highest DNA content yet recorded for the Brachyura (coastal crabs Xantho pilipes and Necora puber). Finally, analysis of genome size variation across populations revealed unexpected intraspecific variation in the vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata that could not be attributed simply to ploidy changes.

Le niveau de variation de la taille des génomes dans les différents phylums restent encore mal connu. Il en est de même de l’influence de l’environnement sur cette variation. En ce sens, les sources hydrothermales océaniques constituent un écosystème modèle particulièrement intéressant pour étudier la taille des génomes dans un environnement instable. Nous avons estimé par cytométrie en flux la taille de 28 génomes d’espèces parmi les plus représentatives de différents sites hydrothermaux, ainsi que de quelques décapodes côtiers phylogénétiquement apparentés. Ces tailles de génome haploïde ont été ensuite comparées aux valeurs accessibles dans les bases de données pour des espèces appartenant aux mêmes taxons. Cette première étude à grande échelle montre que, contrairement à ce qui pouvait être attendu, certaines espèces hydrothermales présentent des tailles de génome particulièrement importantes. Ainsi la galathée Munidopsis recta possède le plus grand génome d’anomoure jamais décrit : 2C = 31,1 pg = 30,4 × 109 pb. Pour plusieurs taxons (Brachyura, Phyllodocida et Veneroida), les tailles de génomes observées pour les espèces hydrothermales sont clairement parmi les plus fortes connues. Par ailleurs, nous avons observé les plus gros génomes décrits jusqu'à présent chez les crabes dans les deux espèces côtières Necora puber et Xantho pilipes. Enfin des analyses inter-populationnelle ont révélé une surprenante variabilité intra-spécifique chez la crevette hydrothermale Mirocaris fortunata qui ne serait pas due à de simples changements de ploïdie.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2009

More about this publication?
  • From its inception in 1957, this international cytogenetics journal has catered to the research areas of the members of the Genetics Society of Canada; traditionally, these have included agriculture, entomology, genetics/cytogenetics, and evolutionary mechanisms. The contents of the journal have evolved as contributors developed new technologies and interests. A 20-member Editorial Board is composed of scientists from around the world. Reviews and commentary from respected experts are often featured.
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