Prey competition between sympatric Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on Lovushki Island, Russia

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Abstract:

Approximately 1 000 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776); SSL) and 14 000 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); NFS) breed sympatrically on Lovushki Island in the Russian Far East, creating the potential for interspecific competition for prey. An additional 13 000 – 14 000 juvenile NFS are present during the breeding season. The diets of breeding SSL and both breeding and juvenile NFS were examined through analysis of scats and spews collected during the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2007–2008. There were significant overlaps in the prey species and size selection of SSL and juvenile NFS. There were significant differences between the diets of SSL and breeding NFS. SSL and juvenile NFS fed primarily on Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Pallas, 1810)), while breeding NFS fed on cephalopods, salmon (genus Oncorhynchus Suckley, 1861), Atka mackerel, and northern smoothtongue (Leuroglossus schmidti Rass, 1955). The partitioning of resources between breeding animals has allowed both species to coexist within the same region and likely reflected differences in foraging abilities and provisioning strategies of the adults and the fasting abilities of their pups. However, continued growth of the NFS population may lead to the exclusion of SSL owing to interspecific competition for prey.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z11-117

Affiliations: 1: School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska, 905 North Koyukuk Drive, 245 O’Neill Building, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. 2: National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Publication date: January 5, 2012

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  • Published since 1929, this monthly journal reports on primary research contributed by respected international scientists in the broad field of zoology, including behaviour, biochemistry and physiology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, morphology and ultrastructure, parasitology and pathology, and systematics and evolution. It also invites experts to submit review articles on topics of current interest.
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