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Temperature effects on swimming performance, energetics, and aerobic capacities of mature adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) compared with those of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

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Abstract:

We assessed the prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit), metabolic rate (M-dotO2-min and M-dotO2-max), and oxygen cost of transport (COT) for upper Fraser River pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792); 53.5 ± 0.7 cm FL) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum, 1792); 59.3 ± 0.8 cm FL) across a range of naturally occurring river temperatures using large Brett-type swim tunnel respirometers. Pink salmon were capable of similar relative critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) as sockeye salmon (2.25 FL·s–1), but sockeye salmon swam to a higher absolute Ucrit (125.9 cm·s–1) than pink salmon (116.4 cm·s–1) because of their larger size. Nevertheless, three individual pink salmon (Ucrit-max = 173.6 cm·s–1) swam faster than any sockeye salmon (Ucrit-max = 157.0 cm·s–1), indicating that pink salmon are far better swimmers than has been previously assumed. Metabolic rate increased exponentially with swimming speed in both species and was highest for pink salmon, but swimming efficiency (i.e., COT) did not differ between species at their optimal swimming speeds. The upper and lower limits of metabolism did not differ between species and both M-dotO2-min and M-dotO2-max increased exponentially with temperature, but aerobic costs of transport were independent of temperature in both species. Strong thermal dependence of both swimming performance and COT were expected but not demonstrated in either species. Overall, a higher degree of inter-individual variability in pink salmon swim performance and capacity suggests that this species might not be as locally adapted to particular river migration conditions as are sockeye salmon.

Nous avons évalué la performance de nage soutenue (Ucrit), les taux de métabolisme (M-dotO2-min et M-dotO2-max) et le coût en oxygène du transport (COT) chez des saumons roses (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792); 53,5 ± 0,7 cm LF) et des saumons rouges (Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum, 1792); 59,3 ± 0,8 cm LF) du Fraser supérieur sur une gamme de températures fluviales naturelles dans de grands respiromètres de type Brett avec tunnel de nage. Les saumons roses peuvent atteindre les mêmes vitesses de nage critiques (Ucrit) relatives que les saumons rouges (2,25 LF·s–1), mais les saumons rouges atteignent une valeur de Ucrit absolue plus grande (125,9 cm·s–1) que les saumons roses (116,4 cm·s–1) à cause de leur plus grande taille. Néanmoins, trois des saumons roses individuels nagent plus vite (Ucrit-max = 173.6 cm·s–1) que tous les saumons rouges (Ucrit-max = 157,0 cm·s–1), ce qui indique qu'ils sont de bien meilleurs nageurs qu'on l'a cru jusqu'ici. Le taux de métabolisme augmente de façon exponentielle en fonction de la vitesse de nage chez les deux espèces et il est supérieur chez le saumon rose, mais l'efficacité de la nage (c.-à-d. COT) n'est pas différente chez les deux espèces à leur vitesse de nage optimale. Les limites supérieures et inférieures du métabolisme ne diffèrent pas chez les deux espèces et M-dotO2-min et M-dotO2-max augmentent de façon exponentielle en fonction de la température, mais les coûts aérobies du transport sont indépendants de la température chez les deux espèces. Nous nous attendions à une forte dépendance thermique à la fois de la performance de nage et de COT, ce qui ne se produit pas chez ces espèces. Globalement, le degré plus fort de variabilité entre individus dans la performance et la capacité de nage chez le saumon rose indique que cette espèce peut ne pas être aussi bien adaptée localement aux conditions particulières de migration du fleuve que le saumon rouge. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2006

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  • Published since 1929, this monthly journal reports on primary research contributed by respected international scientists in the broad field of zoology, including behaviour, biochemistry and physiology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, morphology and ultrastructure, parasitology and pathology, and systematics and evolution. It also invites experts to submit review articles on topics of current interest.
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