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Relative abilities to correct rolling disturbances of three morphologically different fish

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Abstract:



Responses of three fish species were measured following the addition of neutrally buoyant weight-float combinations that increased rolling instability. The three species were creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus. Ability to correct posture was predicted to increase with fin size and body depth in the order creek chub < largemouth bass < bluegill. In a 90-s period, the least added torque causing fish to roll to 90° in response to disturbances, ΔT90, and the least added torque making fish unable to recover from rolling, ΔTcrit, were measured as limits of ability to correct postural disturbances. Contrary to expectations, creek chub required a 58% increase in body torque to reach ΔT90, significantly larger than the 11% increase for largemouth bass and 19% increase for bluegill. Similarly, ΔTcrit was a 78% increase in body torque for creek chub, 43% for largemouth bass, and 34% for bluegill. Increased rolling torques resulted in behaviors reducing and avoiding rolling, including tilting, which reduces metacentric height, inverted swimming, which stabilizes fish, and contacting surfaces, which generates static forces. The superior ability of creek chub to correct postural disturbances may be explained by a fin arrangement that facilitates interactions with the ground.

Nous avons mesuré les réactions de trois espèces de poissons à l'addition de combinaisons poids-flotteurs à flottabilité neutre qui augmentent l'instabilité au roulis. Les trois espèces utilisées étaient le mulet à cornes, Semotilus atromaculatus, l'achigan à grande bouche, Micropterus salmoides, et le crapet arlequin, Lepomis macrochirus. Nous avons prédit que la capacité de rectification de la posture augmenterait en fonction de la taille des nageoires et de la hauteur du corps selon l'ordre suivant mulet < achigan < crapet. Dans une période de 90 s, les mesures de la torsion minimale ajoutée qui amène le corps à tourner de 90° sur lui-même en réaction à des perturbations, ΔT90, et de la torsion minimale ajoutée qui rend le poisson incapable de reprendre sa position, ΔTcrit, ont servi de limites à la capacité du poisson à corriger ses distorsions posturales. Contrairement à nos attentes, le mulet à cornes nécessite une augmentation de 58 % de la torsion du corps pour atteindre ΔT90, significativement plus que l'achigan (11 %) et le crapet (19 %). De même, ΔTcrit représente une augmentation de 78 % de la torsion du corps chez le mulet, 43 % chez l'achigan et 34 % cez le crapet. L'augmentation de la torsion du corps lors du roulis suscite des comportements propres à diminuer le roulis et permettant de lui échapper, inclinaisons qui réduisent la hauteur métacentrique, nage inversée qui stabilise le poisson et contacts avec la surface qui génèrent des forces statiques. La capacité supérieure des mulets de corriger leur posture peut s'expliquer par l'arrangement de leurs nageoires qui facilite les contacts avec le fond.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2002

More about this publication?
  • Published since 1929, this monthly journal reports on primary research contributed by respected international scientists in the broad field of zoology, including behaviour, biochemistry and physiology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, morphology and ultrastructure, parasitology and pathology, and systematics and evolution. It also invites experts to submit review articles on topics of current interest.
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