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Ultrastructural study of the olfactory organ in adult and developing European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

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Abstract:

The olfactory organ of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in adults and during development has been studied by light microscopy and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. This organ includes two cavities, each extended by an accessory sac and opening to the outside through two nostrils. It contains a rosette consisting of about forty lamellae. The olfactory epithelium is characterized by the presence of two types of receptor cells, ciliated or with microvilli, and numerous ciliated nonsensory cells. Rod cells, essentially found in the altered epithelia of farmed bass, and rodlet cells are also observed. The olfactory organ forms very early in the developmental process. Two olfactory pits holding both types of sensory receptors appear 24 h before hatching. The ciliated nonsensory cells only appear at the end of the endotrophic period, shortly before the mouth opens. Although it is rather unspectacular during the larval stage, the development of the olfactory organ is characterized at the start of the juvenile stage by three important events: the formation of the nostrils, the hollowing of the accessory sacs, and the development of the rosette. This is created by raising the floor of the cavity and forming successive folds, which are the lamellae where the sensory epithelium is found.

L'organe olfactif du loup européen (Dicentrarchus labrax) a été étudié chez l'adulte et au cours du développement, à partir d'observations en microscopie photonique et électronique à transmission et à balayage. Cet organe comprend deux cavités, chacune étant prolongée par un sac accessoire et s'ouvrant à l'extérieur par deux narines. Il renferme une rosette constituée d'un nombre peu important de lamelles. L'épithélium olfactif est caractérisé par la présence de deux types de cellules réceptrices, ciliées ou à microvillosités, et par de nombreuses cellules non sensorielles ciliées. Des cellules à baguettes, essentiellement au niveau des épithéliums altérés des loups d'élevage, et des cellules à bâtonnets sont également observées. L'organe olfactif se forme très tôt au cours du développement. Deux fossettes olfactives, renfermant les deux types de récepteurs sensoriels, apparaissent 24 h avant l'éclosion. Les cellules non sensorielles ciliées n'apparaissent qu'en fin de période endotrophe, peu avant l'ouverture de la bouche. Peu spectaculaire durant le stade larvaire, le développement de l'organe olfactif est caractérisé au début du stade juvénile par trois événements importants: la formation des narines, le creusement des sacs accessoires et l'édification de la rosette. Celle-ci se forme par soulèvement du plancher de la cavité, à l'origine de plis successifs, correspondant aux lamelles, où est localisé l'épithélium sensoriel.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2002

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  • Published since 1929, this monthly journal reports on primary research contributed by respected international scientists in the broad field of zoology, including behaviour, biochemistry and physiology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, morphology and ultrastructure, parasitology and pathology, and systematics and evolution. It also invites experts to submit review articles on topics of current interest.
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