Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside-Rd on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats
Abstract:A previous study reported that ginsenoside-Rd reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB in lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 microglia in vitro. The aim of the present study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of ginsenoside-Rd in animal experiments involving acute inflammation. The results indicated that ginsenoside-Rd at doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/kg i.m. significantly inhibited the swelling of hind paws in rats for 1–6 h after the carrageenan injection. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and proinflammatory mediators were markedly reduced by ginsenoside-Rd. Ginsenoside-Rd, when administered intramuscularly at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg doses, showed signicant inhibition of carrageenan-induced production of interleukin-1β (6.91%, 45.75%, and 55.18%, respectively), tumor necrosis factor-α (37.99%, 56.39%, and 47.38%, respectively), prostaglandin E2 (22.92%, 30.12%, and 36.36%, respectively), and nitric oxide (28.27%, 44.53%, and 53.42%, respectively). In addition, ginsenoside-Rd (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg i.m.) effectively decreased the levels of nuclear factor-κB (6.77%, 20.28%, and 41.03%, respectively) and phosphorylation of IκBα (13.23%, 26.92%, and 41.80%, respectively) in the carrageenan-inflamed paw tissues. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rd has significant anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, which might be due to its blocking of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Thus, it may be possible to develop ginsenoside-Rd as a useful agent for inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: anti-inflammation; carrageenan; carraghénine; cytokines proinflammatoires; facteur nucléaire-κB; ginsenoside-Rd; médiateurs proinflammatoires; nuclear factor-κB; phosphorylation de IκBα; phosphorylation of IκBα; proinflammatory cytokines; proinflammatory mediators
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China. 2: Department of Urology Surgery, the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China. 3: Department of Pharmacy, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China.
Publication date: 2012-02-20
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