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Direct and indirect assessment of -motor firing patterns

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Abstract:

The study of the patterns of -motor activity which accompany natural contractions has been long and difficult, and has not as yet led to general agreement. In this review we have simplified matters by considering the case of locomotion in the cat only, and we have avoided discussion of the various hypotheses which have been advanced to provide general schemes of  control for a wide range of movements. The development of the subject is shown to depend very much on devising ingenious methods applicable to reduced and intact animals. Direct recording from -motoneurones has only been possible in reduced preparations, whereas indirect assessment of  activity from spindle afferent recordings was used in these and in intact animals. At this point in time, we still have no direct recordings from -motoneurones in normally behaving animals, but those obtained in decerebrate animals show distinct patterns of modulation for static and dynamic types with particular temporal relation to the stepping movements. The spindle recordings in intact animals potentially provide the most important information, and the problems of interpretation, which have previously caused difficulties, are beginning to be solved through the insights obtained from the reduced preparations.Key words: locomotion, gamma motoneurons, muscle spindles.

L'étude des patrons d'activité motrice  qui accompagnent les contractions naturelles a été longue et difficile et n'a pas encore fait l'unanimité. Dans la présente synthèse, nous avons simplifié les choses en considérant uniquement le cas de la locomotion chez le chat, et nous avons évité de discuter des diverses hypothèses de modèles généraux de contrôle  pour une vaste gamme de mouvements. Nous montrons que le développement du sujet a été étroitement lié à la mise au point de méthodes ingénieuses applicables à des préparations animales réduites ou intactes. L'enregistrement direct des motoneurones  n'a été possible que dans les préparations animales réduites, alors que l'évaluation indirecte de l'activité  à partir d'enregistrements au niveau des afférences fusoriales a été utilisée chez ces animaux et chez les animaux intacts. À ce stade-ci, nous n'avons toujours pas d'enregistrement direct des motoneurones  chez les animaux intacts, mais ceux obtenus chez les animaux décérébrés montrent des patrons de modulation distincts pour les types statiques et dynamiques ainsi qu'une relation temporelle spécifique aux mouvements de marche. Les enregistrements au niveau des fuseaux musculaires chez les animaux intacts fournissent probablement l'information la plus importante, et les problèmes d'interprétation, qui posaient des difficultés, commencent à être résolus grâce aux révélations obtenues des préparations réduites.Mots clés : locomotion, motoneurones gamma, fuseaux musculaires.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2004

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