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Antimicrobial actions of α-mangostin against oral streptococci

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Abstract:

The increasing prevalence of dental caries is making it more of a major world health problem. Caries is the direct result of acid production by cariogenic oral bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans. New and better antimicrobial agents active against cariogenic bacteria are badly needed, especially natural agents derived directly from plants. We have evaluated the inhibitory actions of α-mangostin, a xanthone purified from ethanolic extracts of the tropical plant Garcinia mangostana L., by repeated silica gel chromatography. α-Mangostin was found to be a potent inhibitor of acid production by S. mutans UA159, active against membrane enzymes, including the F(H+)-ATPase and the phosphoenolpyruvate - sugar phosphotransferase system. α-Mangostin also inhibited the glycolytic enzymes aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase. Glycolysis by intact cells in suspensions or biofilms was inhibited by α-mangostin at concentrations of 12 and 120 µmol·L-1, respectively, in a pH-dependent manner, with greater potency at lower pH values. Other targets for inhibition by α-mangostin included (i) malolactic fermentation, involved in alkali production from malate, and (ii) NADH oxidase, the major respiratory enzyme for S. mutans. The overall conclusion is that α-mangostin is a multitarget inhibitor of mutans streptococci and may be useful as an anticaries agent.

La prévalence croissante de la carie dentaire fait en sorte qu’elle est maintenant devenue un problème de santé publique majeur. La carie est le résultat direct de la production d’acide par les bactéries orales cariogènes, notamment Streptococcus mutans. De nouveaux agents antimicrobiens plus efficaces envers les bactéries cariogènes sont absolument nécessaires, particulièrement des agents naturels dérivés directement des plantes. Nous avons évalué les effets inhibiteurs de l’α-mangostine, une xanthone purifiée d’extraits éthanoliques de la plante tropicale Garcinia mangostana L. par chromatographies répétées sur gel de silice. L’α-mangostine s’est avérée puissante comme inhibiteur de la production d’acide par S. mutans UA159, et active contre les enzymes membranaires, notamment la F(H+)-ATPase et le système phosphoénolpyruvate : phosphotransférase des sucres. L’α-mangostine inhibait aussi l’aldolase, la glycéraldéhyde-3-phosphate déshydrogénase et la déshydrogénase lactique, des enzymes glycolytiques. La glycolyse était inhibée dans les cellules intactes en suspension ou en biofilms par des concentrations respectives d’α-mangostine de 12 et 120 µmol·L-1 et ce, de façon dépendante du pH, celle-ci étant plus active à des valeurs de pH plus faible. D’autres cibles des effets inhibiteurs (i) de l’α-mangostine comprenaient la fermentation malolactique impliquée dans la production d’alcalis à partir du malate, et (ii) la NADH oxydase, la principale enzyme respiratoire chez S. mutans. La conclusion générale est que l’α-mangostine est un inhibiteur à cibles multiples chez les streptocoques mutans, et qu’elle pourrait être utile comme agent anti-carie.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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