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Differential response of Pichia guilliermondii spoilage isolates to biological and physico-chemical factors prevailing in Patagonian wine fermentations

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Pichia guilliermondii can produce volatile phenols in the initial stages of wine fermentation; however, its response to different wine stress conditions has been poorly studied. In this work, we present an analysis of the response of 23 P. guilliermondii indigenous isolates to physical and chemical wine stress factors and to indigenous wine killer yeasts. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), based on data obtained from response patterns, was carried out to evaluate the relationships among the isolates. Major differences among the isolates were detected in media plates containing 8% ethanol and in those containing 280 g/L glucose. PCoA identified 3 clusters of isolates with different stress response patterns, indicating a relationship between the tolerance to these compounds and the origin of the isolates. Pichia guilliermondii isolates were sensitive to the toxins produced by the species Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Wickerhamomyces anomala (ex Pichia anomala), and Pichia kluyveri, with a maximum level of sensitivity against W. anomala (91% on average). Those isolates obtained from fermenting must proved to be more resistant to killer yeasts than those obtained from grape surfaces. The combined evaluation of the response to physico-chemical and biological factors presented in this work could be a useful standard protocol for the evaluation of the potential spoilage capacity of yeasts in winemaking.

Pichia guillermondii peut produire des phénols volatiles lors des étapes précoces de la fermentation du vin; cependant, sa réponse à différentes conditions de stress oenologique a été peu étudiée. Dans ce travail, nous présentons une analyse de la réponse de 23 isolats indigènes de P. guillermondii à des facteurs de stress œnologiques physico-chimiques ainsi qu’à des levures œnologiques tueuses. Une analyse en coordonnées principales (ACoP) fondée sur les patrons de réponse a été réalisée afin d’évaluer les relations entre les isolats. Des différences majeures parmi les isolats ont été détectées sur les plats de culture contenant 8 % d’éthanol vs. 280 g/L de glucose. L’ACoP a mis en évidence 3 groupes d’isolats possédant des patrons de réponse au stress différents, indiquant la présence d’un lien entre la tolérance à ces composés et l’origine des isolats. Les isolats de P. guillermondii étaient sensibles aux toxines produites par les espèces Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Wickerhamomyces anomala (ex Pichia anomala) et Pichia kluyveri, et démontraient un niveau maximal de sensibilité à W. anomala (91 %). Les isolats obtenus de la fermentation doivent se révéler plus résistants aux levures tueuses que les isolats obtenus de la surface des raisins. L’évaluation combinée de la réponse aux facteurs physico-chimiques et biologiques présentée dans ce travail pourrait constituer un protocole standard pour évaluer la capacité potentielle d’altération par des levures lors de la vinification.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2009

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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