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Optimizing the selection process of yeast starter cultures by preselecting strains dominating spontaneous fermentations

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Abstract:

We propose an efficient and time-saving strategy for starter culture selection. Our approach is based on the accomplishment of 3 phases: (i) the selection of yeast strains dominating spontaneous fermentations, (ii) the selection among the dominant strains of those showing the best technological characteristics, and (iii) the final selection among good technological strains of those showing the desired qualitative traits. We applied this approach to wine fermentations, even though the same strategy has the potential to be employed for the selection of any type of starter culture. We isolated and identified yeast strains at the mid- and final stages of 6 spontaneous fermentations carried out in 3 different Spanish wineries. We identified all strains as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, and subsequently distinguished each strain by analyzing the polymorphism of the inter- regions. Strains that were detected both at the mid- and final stages of the fermentation were considered dominant. Four dominant strains were finally selected and tested in pilot-scale fermentation, and their performance was compared with that of a commercial wine strain. All dominant strains showed good fitness and resulted suitable to be employed as starter cultures. One of the dominant strains isolated in this study is currently commercialized.

Nous proposons une stratégie efficace et économique pour la sélection de culture starter. L'approche proposée est basée sur l'accomplissement de 3 étapes : (i) la sélection de levure dominante fermentations spontanées; (ii) la sélection des levures dominantes d'entre celle montrant les meilleures caractéristiques technologiques; (iii) la sélection finale parmi les bonnes souches technologiques d'entre ceux montrant les traits qualitatifs désirables. Nous appliquons cet système aux fermentations de vin, la même stratégie a le potentiel d’être employé pour la sélection de n'importe quel type de culture de starter. Nous avons isolé et avons identifié des levures à deux étapes différentes (le milieu et l'étape finale) de 6 fermentations spontanées effectué dans trois caves à vin espagnoles différentes. Nous avons identifié toutes les souches comme Saccharomyces cerevisiae par RFLP de la région ITS et par la suite nous avons distingué chaque souches analysant le polymorphisme des régions inter-. On a considéré les souches qui ont été détectées tant au milieu de l'étape qu'à la fin de la fermentation dominante. Quatre souches dominantes ont été finalement choisies, évalué dans une fermentation pilote et leurs performances ont été comparé à celui d'une souche commerciale de vin. Toutes les souches dominantes ont montré leur bonne aptitudes et un résultat approprié pour être employé comme des cultures starter. Une des souches est actuellement commercialisée.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-03-01

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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