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In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.

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Abstract:

In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and Candida non-albicans were less susceptible to cinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P < 0.05). A relationship between the yeasts’ susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations.

Lors de cette étude, nous avons évalué l’activité antifongique d’huiles essentielles sélectionnées provenant d’épices envers des espèces de Candida résistantes ou sensibles au fluconazole. Les espèces étudiées de Candida étaient : Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata et Candida krusei. À des fins de comparaison, elles ont été regroupées en C. albicans, C. dubliniensis et C. non albicans. Les huiles essentielles ont été obtenues de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L. et Zingiber officinale. Les tests de sensibilité étaient basés sur la méthode M27-A2. La composition chimique des huiles essentielles a été déterminée par chromatographie en spectroscopie de masse et par les indices de rétention. Les résultats démontrent que les huiles essentielles de la cannelle, de l’origan mexicain, de l’origan, du thym et du gingembre possèdent différents niveaux d’activité antifongique. Les huiles essentielles de l’origan et du gingembre étaient respectivement les plus actives et les moins actives. La principale découverte consistait dans le fait que la sensibilité de C. albicans, C. dubliniensis et Candida non albicans résistantes au fluconazole aux huiles essentielles de l’origan mexicain, de l’origan, du thym et du gingembre était plus élevée que celle des levures sensibles au fluconazole (P < 0,05). Au contraire, C. albicans et Candida non albicans résistantes au fluconazole étaient moins sensibles à l’huile essentielle de la cannelle que leurs contreparties sensibles au fluconazole (P < 0,05). Une relation existant entre la sensibilité des levures et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles étudiées était apparente lorsque ces 2 paramètres étaient comparés. Finalement, les huiles essentielles du basilic, du romarin et de la sauge ne possédaient aucune activité antifongique envers les isolats de Candida aux concentrations testées.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2008

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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