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Antimicrobial compounds produced by Actinomadura sp. AC104 isolated from an Algerian Saharan soil

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During a search for nonpolyenic antifungal antibiotics, an actinomycete designated AC104 was isolated from a Saharan soil sample by a dilution agar plating method using a chitin - vitamins B medium supplemented with rifampicin. Isolate AC104 presented the morphological and the chemical characteristics of the genus Actinomadura. On the basis of 76 physiological tests and 16S rDNA analysis, this isolate was determined to be quite different from the known species of Actinomadura. It is active against filamentous fungi and both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The production of antibiotic substances was investigated using several culture media. The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained on ISP2 medium. The benzenic extract contained five bioactive spots detected on thin layer chromatography plates. Among these antibiotics, a complex called 104A, which showed the more interesting antifungal activity, was selected and purified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. This complex is composed of four compounds. Ultraviolet-visible, infrared, mass, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies showed that these molecules contain an aromatic ring substituted by aliphatic chains. These compounds differ from the known antibiotics produced by Actinomadura species.Key words: Actinomadura, taxonomy, antimicrobial compounds, Saharan soil.

Dans le cadre d'un programme de screening d'actinomycètes rares producteurs d'antifongiques non-polyéniques, nous avons isolé à partir d'un sol saharien, un actinomycète nommé AC104 sur milieu « chitine - vitamines B » additionné de rifampicine. Sur la base des caractéristiques morphologiques et chimiques, cet isolat a été rattaché au genre Actinomadura. L'étude physiologique (76 tests) et l'analyse de la séquence de l'ADNr 16S ont montré que l'isolat AC104 est assez différent des espèces connues d'Actinomadura et pourrait ainsi être original. Cet isolat présente une très forte activité antimicrobienne vis-à-vis de champignons filamenteux et de bactéries à Gram positif et à Gram négatif. La production d'antibiotiques a été testée sur plusieurs milieux de culture, le meilleur étant le milieu ISP2. Cinq zones actives ont été localizées par bioautographie. Parmi ces antibiotiques, le complexe nommé 104A qui a présenté la plus forte activité antifongique, a été purifié par HPLC en phase inverse. Ce complexe est composé par quatre molécules. Les études spectroscopiques, notamment l'UV-visible, l'infrarouge, la spectrométrie de masse et la RMN protonique, ont permis de constater que ces molécules contiennent un noyau aromatique para di-substitué par des chaînes aliphatiques. Ces composés diffèrent de ceux synthétisés par les espèces du genre Actinomadura.Mots clés : Actinomadura, taxonomie, composés antimicrobiens, sols sahariens.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2006-04-01

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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