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In vitro attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

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Abstract:

The ability of yeasts to attach to hyphae or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi has been speculated to contribute to biocontrol activity on plant surfaces. Attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa was determined using in vitro attachment assays. Yeasts were incubated for 2 d on potato dextrose agar (PDA) prior to experimentation. A total of 292 yeasts cultured on PDA were screened for their ability to attach to conidia of B. cinerea; 260 isolates (89.1%) attached to conidia forming large aggregates of cells, and 22 isolates (7.5%) weakly attached to conidia with 1 or 2 yeast cells attached to a few conidia. Ten yeasts (3.4%), including 8 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus flavescens, and an unidentified species of Cryptococcus, failed to attach to conidia. All non-attaching yeasts produced copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) on PDA. Seventeen yeast isolates did not attach to hyphal fragments of B. cinerea, R. solani, and S. homoeocarpa after a 1 h incubation, but attachment was observed after 24 h. Culture medium, but not culture age, significantly affected the attachment of yeast cells to conidia of B. cinerea. The 10 yeast isolates that did not attach to conidia when grown on agar did attach to conidia (20%–57% of conidia with attached yeast cells) when cultured in liquid medium. Attachment of the biocontrol yeast Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 to conidia of B. cinerea was significantly greater at 1 × 107 yeast cells·mL–1 than at lower concentrations of yeast cells. The ability of yeast cells to attach to fungal conidia or hyphae appears to be a common phenotype among phylloplane yeasts.Key words: adhesion, biological control, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodotorula glutinis.

Il a été spéculé que la capacité de levures à adhérer aux hyphes ou aux conidies de champignons phytopathogènes contribuait à l'activité de biocontrôle sur les surfaces des plantes. L'adhérence de levures phylloplanes à Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani et Sclerotinia homoeocarpa a été déterminée à l'aide de tests d'adhérence in vitro. Les levures ont été pré-incubées pendant 2 jours sur de l'agar pomme de terre-dextrose (PDA). La capacité à adhérer à des conidies de B. cinerea a été criblée chez un total de 292 levures cultivées sur du PDA; 260 isolats (89,1 %) ont adhéré aux conidies pour former des agrégats cellulaires volumineux et 22 isolats (7,5 %) ont adhéré faiblement aux conidies avec une ou 2 levures attachées à quelques conidies. Dix levures (3,4 %) incluant 82 isolats de C. laurentii, un isolat de C. flavescens et une espèce non-identifiée de Cryptococcus n'ont pu adhérer aux conidies. Toutes les levures non-adhérentes ont produit une abondance de polysaccharides extracellulaires sur le PDA. Dix-sept isolats de levures n'ont pas adhéré au fragment hyphaux de B. cinerea, R. solani et S. homoeocarpa suite à une incubation d'une heure mais l'adhérence a été observée après 24 heures. Le milieu de culture, mais non l'âge de la culture, a significativement affecté l'adhérence des levures aux conidies de B. cinerea. Les 10 isolats de levures qui n'ont pas adhéré aux conidies lorsque cultivés sur de l'agar ont adhéré aux conidies (20–57 % des conidies associées à des levures) lorsque cultivés en milieu liquide. L'adhérence de la levure de biocontrôle Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 à B. cinerea était significativement supérieure à 1 × 107 levures · mL–1 comparativement à des concentrations plus basses de levures. La capacité des levures à adhérer à des hyphes ou des conidies fongiques semble être un phénotype commun parmi les levures phylloplanes.Mots clés : adhérence, contrôle biologique, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodotorula glutinis.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2004

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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