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Soil and plant effects on microbial community structure

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Abstract:



We investigated the effects of two different plant species (corn and soybean) and three different soil types on microbial community structure in the rhizosphere. Our working hypothesis was that the rhizosphere effect would be strongest on fast-growing aerobic heterotrophs, while there would be little or no rhizosphere effect on oligotrophic and other slow-growing microorganisms. Culturable bacteria and fungi had larger population densities in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. Communities were characterized by soil fatty acid analysis and by substrate utilization assays for bacteria and fungi. Fatty acid analysis revealed a very strong soil effect but little plant effect on the microbial community, indicating that the overall microbial community structure was not affected by the rhizosphere. There was a strong rhizosphere effect detected by the substrate utilization assay for fast-growing aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community structure, with soil controls and rhizosphere samples clearly distinguished from each other. There was a much weaker rhizosphere effect on fungal communities than on bacterial communities as measured by the substrate utilization assays. At this coarse level of community analysis, the rhizosphere microbial community was impacted most by soil effects, and the rhizosphere only affected a small portion of the total bacteria.Key words: rhizosphere, microbial community, fatty acid, substrate utilization.

Nous avons évalué les impacts de deux espèces de plantes (maïs et soya) et de trois différents types de sols sur la structure de la flore microbienne dans la rhizosphère. Notre hypothèse de travail était que la rhizosphère aurait un impact plus important sur des hétérotrophes aérobes à croissance rapide, alors qu'elle n'aurait peu ou pas d'impact sur les oligotrophes et autres microorganismes à croissance lente. Les densités de populations de bactéries cultivables et de champignons étaient plus importantes dans la rhizosphère que dans le sol en vrac. Les communautés ont été caractérisées par une analyse des acides gras du sol et par des analyses de consommation de substrats, pour les bactéries et les champignons. L'analyse des acide gras a révélé un impact important du sol mais peu d'impact des plantes sur la flore microbienne, ce qui indique que la structure générale de la flore microbienne n'a pas été affectée par la rhizosphère. Les analyses de consommation de substrats ont révélé un fort impact de la rhizosphère sur la structure de la flore bactérienne composée d'aérobes hétérotrophes à croissance rapide; les témoins de sol et les échantillons de rhizosphère se démarquant nettement. La rhizosphère a eut un impact beaucoup plus faible sur la flore fongique par rapport à la flore bactérienne tel que déterminé par les analyses de consommation de substrats. Selon ce niveau d'analyse brute, la flore microbienne de la rhizosphère fut influencée principalement par le sol, et la rhizosphère n'a affecté qu'une petite fraction des bactéries totales.Mots clés : rhizosphère, flore microbienne, acides gras, consommation de substrats.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Keywords: acides gras; consommation de substrats; fatty acid; flore microbienne; microbial community; rhizosphere; rhizosphère; substrate utilization

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2002

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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