Creation of hybrid vigor through nuclear transplantation in Phytophthora

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Abstract:

When isolated nuclei of a diploid oomycete, Phytophthora parasitica, were fused with protoplasts of another strain of the same species, the regenerated nuclear hybrids grew faster than the parental isolates. Such a phenomenon did not occur in hybrids regenerated from mitochondrion–protoplast or protoplast–protoplast fusion products between these two strains. These results indicate that hybrid vigor is the result of the interaction between two different kinds of nuclei, but not between mitochondria, and they suggest that the presence of mitochondria from nuclear donor cells represses the expression of increased vigor. The nuclear hybrids also expressed increased fungicide resistance and propagule production. Increased vigor in growth was also observed in the interspecific nuclear hybrids when isolated nuclei of P. parasitica were transferred into protoplasts of Phytophthora capsici, and vice versa. This phenomenon may have potential applications, such as the creation of superior fungal strains and plant cultivars with improved commercial traits for usage in industry and agriculture.Key words: hybrid vigor, nuclear transplantation, Phytophthora parasitica, Phytophthora capsici.

Lorsque des noyaux isolés d'un oomycète diploïde, Phytophthora parasitica, ont été fusionnés à des protoplastes d'une autre souche de la même espèce, les hybrides nucléaires régénérés ont poussé plus rapidement que les isolats parentaux. Un tel phénomène ne s'est pas produit chez des hybrides régénérés à partir de produits de fusion mitochondrie–protoplaste ou protoplaste–protoplase entre ces deux souches. Ces résultats indiquent que la vigueur hybride est la conséquence de l'interaction entre deux différentes sortes de noyaux, et non entre des mitochondries, et indique que la présence de mitochondries de cellules du donneur nucléaire réprime l'expression de la vigueur accrue. Les hybrides nucléaires ont également démontré une résistance accrue aux fongicide et une production plus abondante de ramets. Une vigueur de croissance supérieure fut également observée chez des hybrides nucléaires interspécifiques, lorsque des noyaux isolés de P. parasitica ont été transférés dans des protoplastes de Phytophthora capsici, et vice versa. Ce phénomène pourrait susciter des applications potentielles dans la création de souches fongiques supérieures et de cultivars de plantes ayant de meilleurs attributs commerciaux pour leur utilisation dans l'industrie et l'agriculture.Mots clés : vigueur hybride, transplantation nucléaire, Phytophthora parasitica, Phytophthora capsici.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Keywords: Phytophthora capsici; Phytophthora parasitica; hybrid vigor; nuclear transplantation; transplantation nucléaire; vigueur hybride

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2001

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  • Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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