Isolation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the beneficial bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice
Abstract:The present study deals with the isolation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from rice (variety NIAB IRRI-9) and the beneficial effects of these inoculants on two Basmati rice varieties. Nitrogen-fixing activity (acetylene-reduction activity) was detected in the roots and submerged shoots of field-grown rice variety NIAB IRRI-9. Estimation of the population size of diazotrophic bacteria by ARA-based MPN (acetylene reduction assay-based most probable number) in roots and shoots indicated about 105–106 counts/g dry weight at panicle initiation and grain filling stages. Four bacterial isolates from rice roots and shoots were obtained in pure culture which produced phytohormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the growth medium. Among these, three isolates S1, S4, and R3 reduced acetylene to ethylene in nitrogen-free semi-solid medium.
Morphological and physiological characteristics of the isolates indicated that three nitrogen-fixing isolates S1, S4, and R3 belonged to the genus Enterobacter, while the non-fixing isolate R8 belonged to the genus Aeromonas. 16S rRNA sequence of one isolate from root (R8) and one isolate from shoot (S1) was obtained which confirmed identification of the isolates as Aeromonas veronii and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively. The 1517-nucleotide-long sequence of the isolate R8 showed 99% similarity with Aeromonas veronii (accession No. AF099023) while partial 16S rRNA sequence (two stretches of total 1271 nucleotide length) of S1 showed 97% similarity with the sequence of Enterobacter cloacae (accession No. AJ251469). The seedlings of two rice varieties Basmati 385 and Super Basmati were inoculated with the four bacterial isolates from rice and one Azospirillum brasilense strain Wb3, which was isolated from wheat.
In the rice variety Basmati 385, maximum increase in root area and plant biomass was obtained in plants inoculated with Enterobacter S1 and Azospirillum Wb3, whereas in the rice variety Super Basmati, inoculation with Enterobacter R3 resulted in maximum increase of root area and plant biomass. Nitrogen fixation was quantified by using 15N isotopic dilution method. Maximum fixation was observed in Basmati 385 with the inoculants Azospirillum Wb3 and Enterobacter S1 where nearly 46% and 41% of the nitrogen was derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), respectively. In general, higher nitrogen fixation was observed in variety Basmati 385 than in Super Basmati, and different bacterial strains were found more effective as inoculants for the rice varieties Basmati 385 and Super Basmati.Key words: phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, Enterobacter, Aeromonas.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2001-02-01
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- Published since 1954, this monthly journal contains new research in the field of microbiology including applied microbiology and biotechnology; microbial structure and function; fungi and other eucaryotic protists; infection and immunity; microbial ecology; physiology, metabolism and enzymology; and virology, genetics, and molecular biology. It also publishes review articles and notes on an occasional basis, contributed by recognized scientists worldwide.
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