Skip to main content

Spatially random mortality in old-growth red pine forests of northern Minnesota

Buy Article:

$50.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Characterizing the spatial distribution of tree mortality is critical to understanding forest dynamics, but empirical studies on these patterns under old-growth conditions are rare. This rarity is due in part to low mortality rates in old-growth forests, the study of which necessitates long observation periods, and the confounding influence of tree in-growth during such time spans. Here, we studied mortality of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in five old-growth stands in Minnesota, USA, demonstrating the use of preexisting information of cohort age structures to account for in-growth after the most recent cohort establishment. Analyses of spatial point patterns, using both Ripley’s K-function and the pair correlation function, showed that tree mortality was essentially a random process, without evidence of contagious mortality patterns that are often expected for old-growth forests. Our analyses further demonstrated in practice that the distribution of dead trees may differ from that of the tree mortality events, which are constrained to occur within the initial distribution, and how mortality patterns can shape the spatial distribution of mature living trees, often attributed to aggregated regeneration patterns. These findings emphasize the need to disentangle the influence of the initial distribution of trees from that of actual tree mortality events.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. 2: USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744, USA.

Publication date: 2012-05-30

More about this publication?
  • Published since 1971, this monthly journal features articles, reviews, notes and commentaries on all aspects of forest science, including biometrics and mensuration, conservation, disturbance, ecology, economics, entomology, fire, genetics, management, operations, pathology, physiology, policy, remote sensing, social science, soil, silviculture, wildlife and wood science, contributed by internationally respected scientists. It also publishes special issues dedicated to a topic of current interest.
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Sample Issue
  • Reprints & Permissions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more