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Life cycle of Arceuthobium americanum on Pinus banksiana based on inoculations in Edmonton, Alberta

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Abstract:

While lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm., is one of the most damaging pests of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in western Canada, no studies have examined the life cycle of this parasite in this pathosystem. Twenty-five jack pine trees in a plantation in Edmonton, Alberta, were inoculated with seeds of A. americanum in the fall of 1998 and 1999; these inoculants were monitored until the dwarf mistletoe plants that arose completed their life cycle. Ninety-two percent of inoculated seeds overwintered on their host. Seventy percent of these seeds germinated, mostly in May. Of these germinants, 69% developed holdfasts. Sixty-eight percent of germinants that developed holdfasts infected their host and produced shoots, primarily between July and August in the second season after inoculation. Of the 56 plants that developed from the 175 inoculations, 34 were pistillate plants and 19 were staminate plants, and 3 immature plants died because the host branch died. Pistillate plants flowered significantly earlier than staminate plants (4.1 vs. 4.7 years). Most pistillate plants produced seed in the fifth year, although one plant produced seed in 4 years. Thus, A. americanum probably has a 5-year life cycle on jack pine.

Bien que l'Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm. soit l'un des ravageurs qui causent le plus de dégâts chez le pin gris (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) dans l'ouest du Canada, aucune étude ne s'est penchée sur le cycle vital de ce parasite dans cette association hôte-pathogène. Vingt-cinq tiges de pin gris dans une plantation située à Edmonton, en Alberta, ont été inoculées avec des graines d'A. americanum à l'automne de 1998 et 1999. Ces inoculats ont été suivis jusqu'à ce que les plants de faux-gui qui se sont développés aient complété leur cycle vital. Quatre-vingt douze pourcent des graines inoculées ont hiverné sur leur hôte et 70 % de ces graines ont germé, la plupart en mai. Des gaines qui ont germé, 69 % ont formé des crampons et 68 % de celles-ci ont infecté leur hôte et produit des pousses, surtout entre juillet et août de la deuxième année après l'inoculation. Des 56 plantes qui se sont développées à partir des 175 inoculations, 34 étaient des plantes femelles, 19 étaient des plantes mâles et trois plantes sont mortes parce que la branche de l'hôte est morte. Les plantes femelles ont fleuri significativement plus tôt que les plantes mâles (4,1 vs 4,7 ans). La plupart des plantes femelles ont produit des graines la cinquième année, bien qu'une plante ait produit des graines après 4 ans. Par conséquent, le cycle vital d'A. americanum dure probablement 5 ans sur le pin gris.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2006-04-01

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