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Croissance et statut nutritif de marcottes, de semis naturels et de plants d'épinette noire à la suite du scarifiage : résultats de 10 ans

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Abstract:

Careful logging around advance growth (CLAAG) and tree planting following site preparation or not (fill planting) are widely used to regenerate black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. However, few mid-term studies have compared these different regeneration modes. In this study, we examined height growth and nutrient status of black spruce layers, natural seedlings, and planted seedlings over a 10-year period, in an experimental design combining CLAAG, natural seeding, planting, and two types of scarification (cones and disks). Without scarification, growth of planted seedlings (5.8 cm·year–1) was slightly greater than that of layers (4.4 cm·year–1) and natural seedlings (4.1 cm·year–1). Scarification improved growth of the three types of regeneration, but the treatment was more beneficial for planted seedlings (+7.1 cm·year–1) than for natural seedlings (+1.6 cm·year–1) and layers (+1,0 cm·year–1). Five years after treatment, scarification had increased the current-year needle N concentration of the three types of regeneration, but this beneficial effect on N was still detectable only in foliage of layers after 10 years. The effect of the treatment was variable for P and K contents, for which natural regeneration seems to have taken advantage more than plants. Our results indicate that scarification can improve the initial growth and nutrient status of both natural and artificial regeneration of black spruce and thus accelerate site recovery after cutting in the boreal forest. Furthermore, fill planting without site preparation appeared to be clearly less efficient than planting combined with scarification.

La coupe avec protection de la régénération et des sols (CPRS) et la plantation à la suite d'une préparation de terrain ou non (regarni) sont largement appliquées pour régénérer les peuplements d'épinette noire (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) de la forêt boréale du Québec, Canada. Toutefois, peu d'études à moyen terme ont comparé ces différents modes de régénération. Dans cette étude, nous avons suivi pendant 10 ans la croissance en hauteur et le statut nutritif de marcottes, de semis naturels et de semis plantés d'épinette noire, dans un dispositif expérimental combinant la CPRS, l'ensemencement naturel, la plantation et deux types de scarifiage (cônes et disques). En l'absence de scarifiage, la croissance des semis plantés (5,8 cm·an–1) a été légèrement supérieure à celle des marcottes (4,4 cm·an–1) et des semis naturels (4,1 cm·an–1). Le scarifiage a amélioré la croissance des trois types de régénération, mais le traitement a été plus profitable aux semis plantés (+7,1 cm·an–1) qu'aux semis naturels (+1,6 cm·an–1) et aux marcottes (+1,0 cm·an–1). Cinq ans après le traitement, le scarifiage avait augmenté la concentration en N des aiguilles de l'année courante chez les trois types de régénération, mais cet effet bénéfique n'était plus détectable que chez les marcottes après 10 ans. L'effet du traitement a été variable pour les teneurs en P et K, pour lesquelles la régénération naturelle semble avoir plus profité que les plants. Nos résultats indiquent que le scarifiage est un moyen d'améliorer la croissance initiale et le statut nutritif de la régénération naturelle et artificielle d'épinette noire, afin d'accélérer la remise en production des stations de la forêt boréale soumises à la coupe. De plus, le regarni effectué sans préparation de terrain est apparu nettement moins efficace que la plantation combinée au scarifiage.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2003

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  • Published since 1971, this monthly journal features articles, reviews, notes and commentaries on all aspects of forest science, including biometrics and mensuration, conservation, disturbance, ecology, economics, entomology, fire, genetics, management, operations, pathology, physiology, policy, remote sensing, social science, soil, silviculture, wildlife and wood science, contributed by internationally respected scientists. It also publishes special issues dedicated to a topic of current interest.
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