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Influence of fertilization, weed control, and pine litter on loblolly pine growth and productivity and understory plant development through 12 growing seasons

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Abstract:

On a silt loam soil in central Louisiana, three cultural treatments were applied to a seedling loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. The treatments were in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design: (1) no fertilization or a broadcast application of 177 kg N/ha and 151 kg P/ha; (2) no herbicides applied or broadcast or spot applications of hexazinone, sulfometuron methyl, or glyphosate herbicides and felling as required to control competing vegetation during the first three growing seasons; and (3) no litter applied or broadcast application of pine litter to form a 10 to 15 cm layer in the first growing season. Through 12 growing seasons, the fertilization or herbicide treatment significantly increased stand growth (α = 0.05), and these two treatments had an additive effect (no treatments, 209 m3/ha; fertilization, 328 m3/ha; herbicide, 280 m3/ha; fertilization and herbicide, 362 m3/ha). However, because litter application probably had a minor fertilization effect, the fertilizer and litter combination produced the greatest yield (370 m3/ha). The herbicide and litter combination adversely affected pine survival, and so applying all three treatments was no more effective than fertilization alone. The loblolly pine overstory was the dominant factor influencing the long-term development of the understory.

Trois traitements culturaux ont été appliqués dans une plantation de pins à encens (Pinus taeda L.) établie sur un loam limoneux du centre de la Louisiane. Les traitements ont été appliqués selon un dispositif factoriel (2 × 2 × 2) : (1) avec ou sans application à la volée de 177 kg N/ha et 151 kg P/ha; (2) avec ou sans applications à la volée ou localisées d'hexazinone, de méthyle de sulfometuron ou de glyphosate et abattage si requis pour maîtriser la végétation compétitrice pendant les trois premières saisons de croissance; et (3) avec ou sans application à la volée de litière de pin pour former une couche de 10 à 15 cm lors de la première saison de croissance. Pendant 12 saisons de croissance, la fertilisation ou les herbicides ont significativement augmenté la croissance du peuplement (α = 0,05) et ces deux traitements ont eu un effet additif (aucun traitement : 209 m3/ha, fertilisation : 328 m3/ha, herbicides : 280 m3/ha, fertilisation et herbicides : 362 m3/ha). Cependant, parce que l'application de litière a probablement eu un léger effet fertilisant, la fertilisation combinée à l'application de litière a donné le rendement le plus élevé (370 m3/ha). Les herbicides combinés à l'application de litière ont eu un effet néfaste sur la survie du pin et, par conséquent, l'application des trois traitements n'était pas plus efficace que la fertilisation seule. Un étage dominant de pin à encens était le facteur dominant dans le développement à long terme du sous-étage.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2003

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