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Contrasting modes of survival by jack and pitch pine at a common range limit

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Abstract:

Freezing tolerance, reproductive development, and seed germination of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) were compared in a small sympatric population in Acadia National Park in Maine, at the southern range limit of the former and the northern limit of the latter. Freezing tolerances of vegetative shoots and roots were similar for both species. Both species flower prolifically, and there was no evidence of differences in either pollen viability, cone survival, or proportion of viable seed (65–70% of the total). Regeneration success (established seedlings ranging from 1 to 13 years old) was similar overall for both species, but success by species varied greatly in some years. Jack pine regeneration was significantly associated with thinner soils, while pitch pine regeneration was associated with thicker soils in hollows. Jack pine seed germinated significantly faster than pitch pine seed, especially when day–night temperature was reduced. Pitch pine seedlings always exhibited a significantly higher shoot/root ratio than those of jack pine. The most northerly provenances of jack pine germinated significantly faster than those from the most southerly provenances. Jack pine also germinated at a significantly higher percentage than pitch pine in exposed granite sand. Thus relatively cool, dry conditions may favor establishment of jack pine seedlings, while pitch pine establishment may be favored in warmer, wetter conditions.

La tolérance au gel, le développement des organes reproducteurs et la germination des graines du pin gris (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) et du pin rigide (Pinus rigida Mill.) ont été comparés dans une petite population sympatrique située dans le parc national Acadia au Maine, où le pin gris est à la limite sud de son aire de répartition et le pin rigide à la limite nord. La tolérance au gel des racines et des pousses est la même chez les deux espèces. Les deux espèces fleurissent abondamment et il n'y a aucune différence évidente dans la viabilité du pollen, la survie des cônes ou la proportion de graines viables (65–70 % du total). Le taux de régénération (semis âgés de 1 à 13 ans) est globalement le même pour les deux espèces, mais il varie beaucoup selon l'espèce certaines années. La régénération du pin gris est surtout associée aux sols minces alors que la régénération du pin rigide est associée aux sols plus épais dans les dépressions. Les graines de pin gris germent significativement plus vites que les graines de pin rigide, particulièrement lorsque la température du jour et de la nuit est basse. Les semis de pin rigide ont toujours un ratio pousses : racines significativement plus élevé que les semis de pin gris. Les provenances de pin gris les plus nordiques germent significativement plus vite que les provenances les plus méridionales. Le pin gris a également un taux de germination plus élevé que le pin rigide dans le sable granitique exposé. Par conséquent, un climat frais et sec pourrait favoriser l'établissement des semis de pin gris alors que l'établissement du pin rigide serait favorisé par des conditions plus humides et plus chaudes.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2002

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  • Published since 1971, this monthly journal features articles, reviews, notes and commentaries on all aspects of forest science, including biometrics and mensuration, conservation, disturbance, ecology, economics, entomology, fire, genetics, management, operations, pathology, physiology, policy, remote sensing, social science, soil, silviculture, wildlife and wood science, contributed by internationally respected scientists. It also publishes special issues dedicated to a topic of current interest.
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