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Distribution and diversity of tree species with respect to soil electrical characteristics in Finnish Lapland

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Abstract:

Soil dielectric permittivity (epsilon), which is dependent on soil water content (thetav), and electrical conductivity (sigma), which is dependent on soil solute concentration, were measured in the immediate vicinity of 7596 mature trees naturally established on glacial deposits across granitoid and greenstone assemblages in Finnish Lapland (67°30' N-68°40' N). The proportions of the main timber species Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) or the diversity of tree species were not affected by the temperature sum (between 750 and 600 degree-days), but the occurrences were strongly influenced by the soil's electrical characteristics. Scots pine and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were found to only occupy dry soils (fixed effect estimates epsilon(p) = 8.5 and epsilon(sb) = 8.3) with low solute concentration (sigma(p) = 0.64 mS·m-1 and sigma(sb) = 0.56 mS·m-1), while Norway spruce, downy birch, aspen (Populus tremula L.) and sallow (Salix caprea L.) occupied sites with higher soil moisture (epsilon(s) = 17.0, epsilon(db) = 14.7, epsilon(a) = 16.7, and epsilon(sa) = 16.7) and solute concentration (sigma(s) = 0.96 mS·m-1, sigma(db) = 0.90 mS·m-1, sigma(a) = 1.07 mS·m-1, and sigma(sa) = 0.93 mS·m-1). Species diversity was found to be at its highest with the following soil parameters: 12 < epsilon < 15 and 0.8 < sigma < 1.2 mS·m-1. Scots pine was concentrated on tills derived from granitoid rocks. Norway spruce dominated sites on tills particularly derived from the mafic metavolcanic rocks of the Greenstone Belt but did not occur on tills derived from granulite. The edaphic constraint for pine appeared to be thetav > 0.27 cm3·cm-3 (epsilon > 15) and for spruce sigma < 0.5 mS·m-1, respectively.

La permittivité du sol (epsilon), qui est fonction du contenu en eau du sol (thetav), et la conductivité électrique du sol (sigma), qui est fonction de la concentration de substances en solution dans le sol, ont été mesurées à proximité de 7596 arbres matures croissant naturellement sur des dépôts glaciaires le long d'assemblages granitoïdes et de roches vertes en Laponie finlandaise (67°30' N-68°40' N). La proportion des principales essences commerciales, le pin sylvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) l'épicéa commun (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) et le bouleau pubescent (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), ou la diversité des espèces d'arbres, n'est pas affectée par la somme des températures (entre 750 et 600 degrés-jour) mais leur présence est fortement influencée par les propriétés électriques du sol. Le pin sylvestre et le bouleau verruqueux (Betula pendula Roth) sont présents seulement sur les sols secs (estimations à effet fixe, epsilon(p) = 8,5 et epsilon(bv) = 8,3) avec une faible concentration de substances en solution (sigma(p) = 0,64 mS·m-1 et sigma(bv) = 0,56 mS·m-1 alors que l'épicéa commun, le bouleau pubescent, le tremble (Populus tremula L.) et le saule (Salix caprea L.) occupent des sites où les sols sont plus humides (epsilon(e) = 17,0, epsilon(bp) = 14,7, epsilon(t) = 16,7, epsilon(s) = 16,7) et où la concentration de substances en solution est plus élevée (epsilon(e) = 0,96 mS·m-1, sigma(bp) = 0,90 mS·m-1, sigma(t) = 1,07 mS·m-1 et sigma(s) = 0,93 mS·m-1). La densité des espèces est maximale avec les paramètres du sol suivants : 12 < epsilon < 15 et 0,8 < sigma < 1,2 mS·m-1. Le pin sylvestre est concentré sur les tills dérivés de roches granitoïdes. L'épicéa commun domine sur les tills dérivés des roches métavolcaniques mafiques de la ceinture de roches vertes mais est absent sur les tills dérivés de granulite. Les contraintes édaphiques semblent correspondre à thetav > 0,27 cm3·cm-3 (epsilon > 15) pour le pin et

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2002

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