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Effort and potential efficiencies for aquatic non-native species early detection

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Our objective was to determine the effort required for high-probability early detection of non-native zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish using Duluth–Superior Harbor — a Great Lakes port under intense non-native species introduction pressure — as a case study. Initially, we allocated samples using a spatially balanced random design. We then resampled the harbor, but allocated samples to a few targeted areas. We detected 21 non-native invertebrate and 10 non-native fish species; however, many rare zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were likely missed. The two designs did not have significantly different species accumulation curves, but the targeted area design samples had higher species richness and detected non-native species with a significantly higher probability. It was possible to reduce the effort required to detect established non-native species. In contrast, the effort required to detect an ultra-rare, newly arrived species remained large. Based on statistical estimation theory, the effort required to detect 95% or more of species present could exceed enumerating 750 zooplankton samples (~500 000 individuals, ~90 species), 150 benthic invertebrate samples (~100 000 individuals, ~250 species), and 100 fish samples (~75 000 individuals, ~40 species).

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2011-12-23

More about this publication?
  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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