Metabolic changes and the resistance and resilience of a subtropical heterotrophic lake to typhoon disturbance
Abstract:We studied how typhoon strength affects the daily dynamics of ecosystem metabolism of a subtropical alpine lake in Taiwan. We identified proximal agents of typhoon disturbance and assessed the resistance (the extent of change induced by a disturbance) and resilience (the rate of recovery after a disturbance) of lake metabolism to them. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production were estimated from high-frequency dissolved oxygen data provided by an instrumented buoy. Typhoons resulted in significantly lower GPP (3%–81% decrease), and higher ER (7%–828% increase) compared with immediately before the events, and thus the lake became more heterotrophic (28%–852% increase in heterotrophy). The resistance and resilience of lake metabolism depended on the intensity of the typhoon. Smaller typhoons (with average daily accumulated precipitation (ADAP) < 200 mm·day–1) had greater effects on lake metabolism than medium (ADAP = 200–350 mm·day–1) and large (ADAP > 350 mm·day–1) typhoons. However, metabolism also recovered more quickly after smaller typhoons than after medium or larger typhoons. Typhoon effects on ecosystem metabolism is likely mediated by the magnitude and duration of typhoon-induced changes in lake mixing, the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon, and the biomass of primary producers.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Trout Lake Station, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 10810 County Highway N, Boulder Junction, WI 54512, USA. 2: Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 680 N Park St., Madison, WI 53706-1492, USA. 3: Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lienda, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan. 4: National Center for High-performance Computing, No. 7 R&D 6th Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan. 5: Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academic Rd. II, Nankang, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.
Publication date: 2011-05-10
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