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Predicting the vertical distributions of reef fish larvae in the Straits of Florida from environmental factors

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Abstract:

Three seasons of vertically stratified ichthyoplankton sampling at the edge of the Florida Current revealed consistent accumulations of some coral reef fish larvae under taxon-specific environmental conditions. Environmental variability ranging from predictable (seasonal differences in temperature, diel changes in light, and vertical gradients in many variables) to stochastic (changes in wind-driven turbulence and patchiness of zooplankton) was used to model larval distributions. In five taxa, including the commercially important Epinephelini (groupers), relative larval densities were predicted with significant accuracy based entirely on sampling depth. Models yielding these predictions were cross-validated among all seasons, indicating that larval vertical distributions were remarkably unaffected by other environmental factors, while revealing strong behavioral preferences for specific ranges of hydrostatic pressure. Pomacentridae (damselfish) larvae consistently occupied shallower depths at night than during the day, demonstrating diel vertical migrations. At the community level, depth and season were two major factors structuring larval coral reef fish assemblages. Predictable vertical distributions of larvae in the Straits of Florida can facilitate modeling the same taxa elsewhere in the Western Central Atlantic.

Un échantillonnage stratifié verticalement de l'ichtyoplancton sur trois saisons à la marge du courant de Floride montre des accumulations régulières de larves de certaines espèces de poissons de récifs coralliens dans des conditions environnementales spécifiques à chaque taxon. Nous avons utilisé la variabilité environnementale allant de prévisible (différences saisonnières de température, changements diurnes de lumière et gradients verticaux de plusieurs variables) à stochastique (changements dans la turbulence sous l'effet du vent et répartition en taches du zooplancton) pour modéliser les répartitions des larves. Chez cinq des taxons, y compris les Epinephelini (les mérous) d'importance économique, la profondeur d'échantillonnage seule permet de prédire les densités relatives des larves avec une forte précision. Les modèles qui fournissent ces prédictions ont été soumis à une validation croisée sur toutes les saisons, ce qui indique que les répartitions verticales des larves sont remarquablement peu affectées par les autres facteurs du milieu et que les larves manifestent de fortes préférences comportementales pour des gammes spécifiques de pression hydrostatique. Les larves de Pomacentridae (demoiselles) se retrouvent de façon constante à des profondeurs moins grandes la nuit que le jour, ce qui démontre l'existence de migrations verticales diurnes. Au niveau de la communauté, la profondeur et la saison sont deux facteurs dominants dans la structuration des peuplements de larves de poissons de récifs coralliens. La répartition verticale prévisible des larves dans le détroit de Floride peut faciliter la modélisation des mêmes taxons ailleurs dans le centre de l'Atlantique de l'Ouest.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2010

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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