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Patterns and magnitude of Zn:Ca in otoliths support the recent phylogenetic typology of Salmoniformes and their sister groups

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Abstract:

Fish otolith chemistries are used to associate fishes with specific environments. However, otolith chemistry may also have potential as a tool in phylogenetic research, as demonstrated here in salmoniform fishes and related taxa. Two-dimensional maps of Zn:Ca otolith chemistry displayed annual oscillations in magnitude in members of the Salmoniformes (with salmons differing from whitefishes). These are also detectable in esocids, but not strongly in osmerids or in more distantly related taxa. Further, Zn:Ca magnitudes were highest in salmonids and declined in other taxa: salmonids (salmons, grayling, and whitefishes)> esocids> osmerids> other. We performed spatial analysis on sagittal section Zn:Ca maps, dividing them into five zones and obtaining means within each zone, as well as grand means. Discriminant function analysis of the different otolith zones was better able to separate taxonomic groups, but showed pike grouping more closely with salmonids and osmerids with the out-group. Zn:Ca incorporation in otoliths may be a trait under phylogenetic control, and recent re-ordering of the systematics of Salmoniformes and their sister groups may be supported by otolith Zn:Ca chemistry.

La chimie des otolithes de poissons sert à associer les poissons à des environnements spécifiques. La chimie des otolithes peut aussi potentiellement servir d’outil dans la recherche phylogénétique, comme nous le démontrons ici chez les poissons salmonidés et les taxons apparentés. Des cartes bidimensionnelles de la chimie de Zn:Ca dans les otolithes montrent des oscillations annuelles d’amplitude chez des membres des salmoniformes (les saumons se distinguant des corégones). Celles-ci se décèlent aussi chez les ésocidés, mais pas de façon marquée chez les osméridés, ni chez les autres taxons moins apparentés. De plus, les amplitudes de Zn:Ca sont maximales chez les salmonidés et diminuent chez les autres taxons : salmonidés (saumons, ombres et corégones) > ésocidés > osméridés > autres. Une analyse spatiale sur des cartes en coupe sagittale de Zn:Ca les divise en cinq zones et fournit les moyennes de chaque zone ainsi que les moyennes totales. Une analyse des fonctions discriminantes des différentes zones d’otolithes sépare encore mieux les groupes taxonomiques, mais montre que les brochets s’associent de plus près aux salmonidés et les osméridés au groupe externe. L’incorporation de Zn:Ca dans les otolithes peut être un trait sous contrôle phylogénétique et la chimie de Zn:Ca des otolithes peut venir appuyer la réorganisation récente de la systématique des salmoniformes et de leurs groupes-sœurs.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: April 1, 2010

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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