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Contrasting responses in larval and juvenile growth to a climate–ocean regime shift between anchovy and sardine

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Abstract:

Anchovy and sardine populations have fluctuated alternately with decadal changes in climatic and oceanic states, although the mechanisms remain unclear. In the western North Pacific, anchovy and sardine share nursery grounds in the Kuroshio–Oyashio transitional waters, where the subtropical and subarctic currents converge from the south and north, respectively. We found that northward expansion of the subtropical waters simultaneously changed the local environment in the nursery grounds to be favorable for late larvae and early juveniles of anchovy, but not for those of sardine during 1996–2002. Increased temperature enhanced growth and survival for anchovy, whereas reduced food availability diminished those for sardine. Northward expansion of the subtropical waters have been linked with wind-forced anomaly of sea-surface height in the central North Pacific. After 1988, when anchovy flourished and sardine collapsed in the western North Pacific, previous studies by other researchers documented similar changes in air–sea interaction. Our results suggest that contrasting responses in growth and survival processes to wind-forced oscillation of the current structures caused the alternate population dynamics between anchovy and sardine in the western North Pacific.

Les populations d’anchois et de sardines fluctuent en alternance à l’échelle des changements décennaux de climat et d’état océanique, bien que les mécanismes impliqués restent peu évidents. Dans l’ouest du Pacifique Nord, les anchois et les sardines partagent les mêmes zones de nourricerie dans les eaux de transition Kuroshio–Oyashio, où convergent les courants subtropicaux et subarctiques, provenant respectivement du sud et du nord. L’expansion vers le nord des eaux subtropicales en 1996–2002 a en même temps modifié l’environnement local des zones de nourricerie pour les rendre propices aux larves avancées et aux premiers stades juvéniles d’anchois, mais non à ceux de sardines. L’augmentation de température a accru la croissance et la survie des anchois, alors qu’une réduction de la disponibilité de nourriture a restreint celles des sardines. L’expansion vers le nord des eaux subtropicales a été associée à une anomalie de la hauteur de la surface de la mer sous l’emprise du vent dans le centre nord du Pacifique. Des changements semblables dans les interactions air–mer avaient été observés lors d’études antérieures faites quand les populations d’anchois se sont développées et celles de sardines se sont effondrées après 1988 dans l’ouest du Pacifique Nord. Nos résultats laissent croire que les réactions opposées des processus de croissance et de survie aux oscillations des structures de courant sous l’influence du vent expliquent l’alternance des dynamiques de population des anchois et des sardines dans l’ouest du Pacifique Nord.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-06-01

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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