Nature and nurture in dormancy: dissolved oxygen, pH, and maternal investment impact Bythotrephes longimanus resting egg emergence and neonate condition

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Abstract:

Bythotrephes longimanus (Onychopoda: Cercopagidae), an invasive zooplankter in North America, requires suitable habitat to satisfy its planktonic and resting stages, which occupy the pelagia and sediment of lakes, respectively. Thousands of resting eggs from hundreds of planktonic mothers were exposed to laboratory conditions that mimicked gradients observed in lake sediment (dissolved oxygen = 1.4–11.9mg·L–1; pH = 3–11). Eggs hatched in all treatments, which confirms the utility of dormancy and the robustness of the resting egg in B. longimanus. However, hatching success and neonate condition were greatest when dormancy conditions were maintained at near-saturated dissolved oxygen and near-neutral pH; deviations from these conditions resulted in prolonged development, smaller neonates, and the failure of many eggs to hatch. In addition to the influence of environmental conditions, heavier mothers produced larger eggs that hatched more frequently and resulted in heavier neonates. These maternal effects are likely due to greater energy investment by healthier mothers. This study suggests that nature and nurture influence dormancy success, and the results underscore that both life-cycle stages of B. longimanus need to be considered to understand its range expansion.

Bythotrephes longimanus (Onychopoda: Cercopagidae), un organisme zooplanctonique envahissant en Amérique du Nord, requiert un habitat adéquat pour répondre aux besoins de ses stades planctoniques et son stade de repos qui vivent respectivement dans la zone pélagique et les sédiments des lacs. Nous avons exposé des milliers d'oeufs de repos provenant de centaines de mères planctoniques à des conditions de laboratoire qui miment les gradients observés dans les sédiments lacustres (oxygène dissous = 1,4–11,9 mg·L–1; pH = 3–11). Les oeufs ont éclos dans toutes les conditions expérimentales, ce qui confirme l'importance de la dormance et la robustesse des oeufs de repos chez B. longimanus. Cependant, le succès de l'éclosion et la condition des nouveau-nés sont meilleurs lorsque les conditions de dormance se maintiennent à un niveau d'oxygène dissous s'approchant de la saturation et à un pH près de la neutralité; les écarts à partir de ces conditions ont pour résultat, un développement prolongé, une taille réduite des nouveau-nés et un insuccès de l'éclosion chez de nombreux oeufs. En plus de l'influence des conditions du milieu, les mères plus lourdes produisent des oeufs plus grands qui ont un taux d'éclosion plus élevé et donnent des nouveau-nés plus lourds. Ces effets maternels sont vraisemblablement dus à un investissement énergétique plus important par des mères en meilleure santé. Notre étude laisse croire que la nature et les conditions d'élevage influencent le succès de la dormance; nos résultats soulignent qu'il est nécessaire de considérer les deux étapes du cycle biologique de B. longimanus pour comprendre l’expansion de son aire de répartition.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2008

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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