Lipid class and nonesterified fatty acid profiles in plasma of North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

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Abstract:

Metabolic energy status is a critical metric for the evaluation of fish condition and health. Thus, we (i) conducted comprehensive and comparative measurements of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and other plasma lipids in fed and food-deprived (10 weeks) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and (ii) compared three common methods for measuring total plasma NEFAs (Folch extraction/Iatroscan, Wako® enzymatic, and acetyl chloride extraction/GC). Plasma total lipid, phospholipid, triacylglycerol, and NEFA levels were 83%–95% lower in food-deprived fish. In contrast, the concentration of a previously unidentified lipid class (ethyl ketone) was only 60% lower and was in fact almost threefold higher when expressed as a percentage of total lipid. Considerable differences in the NEFA profile were also observed, for example, 22:111 (dominant NEFA in fed fish) was not detected, 20:19 was 97% lower, and monounsaturated fatty acids were selectively reduced. Importantly, the acetyl chloride/GC method resulted in an eightfold overestimation of NEFA in fed fish. These results (i) suggest that plasma lipids reflect the energetic/nutritional status of wild gadids and can be used to monitor their responses to changing environmental conditions and (ii) caution against using the acetyl chloride/GC method of NEFA measurement without prior separation of plasma lipids by solid-phase chromatography.

Le niveau d'énergie métabolique est une métrique importante pour l'évaluation de la condition et de la santé des poissons. Nous avons donc (i) procédé à des dosages complets et comparatifs des acides gras non estérifiés (NEFA) et des autres acides gras du plasma chez des morues franches (Gadus morhua) nourries ou privées de nourriture pendant 10 semaines et (ii) comparé trois méthodes communes de dosage des NEFA totaux du plasma (extraction Folch/Iatroscan, analyse enzymatique Wako®, extraction au chlorure d'acétyle/chromatographie en phase gazeuse (GC)). Les concentrations de lipides plasmatiques totaux, de phospholipides, de triacylglycérol (TAG) et de NEFA sont toutes plus basses de 83–95 % chez les poissons qui jeûnent. En revanche, la concentration d'une classe encore inédite de lipides (l'éthyl-cétone) est réduite de seulement 60 % et, en fait, elle est presque trois fois plus grande lorsqu'elle est exprimée en pourcent des lipides totaux. Il existe aussi des différences considérables dans les profils des NEFA : par exemple, le 22:111 (NEFA dominant chez les poissons nourris) n'est mesurable, le 20:19 est réduit de 97 % et les acides gras non saturés subissent une réduction sélective. Fait important à noter, la méthode du chlorure d'acétyle/GC surestime les NEFA chez les poissons nourris par un facteur de huit. Ces résultats (i) indiquent que les lipides plasmatiques reflètent le statut énergétique/nutritionnel des gadidés sauvages et peuvent servir à suivre leurs réactions aux conditions changeantes du milieu et (ii) mettent en garde contre l'utilisation de la méthode du chlorure d'acétyle/GC de dosage des NEFA sans séparation préalable des lipides plasmatiques par chromatographie en phase solide. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2005

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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