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Population genetic structure and postglacial colonization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea area based on microsatellite DNA variation

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Abstract:

The genetic structure and phylogeography of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) across the Baltic Sea basin and neighbouring areas (eastern Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Barents Sea, White Sea, and two Russian lakes, Onega and Ladoga) were studied to resolve the partly contradictory hypotheses of the species' postglacial colonization history. Thirty-eight populations (total of 2180 individuals) were studied for nine DNA microsatellite loci. Within the Baltic Sea, the anadromous populations formed three clear groups, corresponding to the northern (Gulf of Bothnia), eastern (Gulf of Finland and eastern Baltic Main Basin), and southern regions (western Baltic Main Basin). The genetic differences among these three groups were clearly greater (GGB 5.6%; GGB being the proportion of diversity components between regions within basins) than were those among population groups in the eastern Atlantic Ocean (GGB 2.2%) from Ireland to the White Sea. The isolation-by-distance model explained part of the differentiation within, but not between, the regions. The results strongly indicate colonization of the Baltic Sea by at least three glacial lineages. Potential refugium areas for each lineage are proposed.

Nous avons étudié la structure génétique et la phylogéographie du saumon atlantique (Salmo salar) de part en part du bassin de la Baltique et dans les régions avoisinantes (est de l'Atlantique, mer de Barents, mer Blanche et deux lacs russes, les lacs Onega et Ladoga) pour résoudre les hypothèses en partie contradictoires sur l'histoire de la colonisation postglaciaire de l'espèce. Nous avons analysé neuf locus ADN microsatellites chez 2180 individus appartenant à 38 populations. Au sein de la Baltique, les populations anadromes forment trois groupes distincts qui correspondent aux régions du nord (golfe de Bothnie), de l'est (golfe de Finlande et bassin principal de l'est de la Baltique) et du sud (bassin principal de l'ouest de la Baltique). Les différences génétiques entre ces trois groupes sont nettement plus importantes (GGB 5,6 %; GGB représente la proportion d'éléments de diversité entre les régions à l'intérieur des bassins) que celles qui existent entre les groupes de populations de l'est de l'Atlantique (GGB 2,2 %), de l'Irlande à la mer Blanche. Le modèle de l'isolement en fonction de la distance explique une partie de la différentiation au sein des régions, mais non entre elles. Nos résultats indiquent fortement une colonisation de la Baltique par au moins trois lignées glaciaires. Nous proposons des zones possibles de refuge pour chaque lignée.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2005-08-01

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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