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Evaluation of fish-injury mechanisms during exposure to turbulent shear flow

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Abstract:

Understanding the factors that injure or kill turbine-passed fish is important to the operation and design of the turbines. Motion-tracking analysis was performed on high-speed, high-resolution digital videos of juvenile salmonids exposed to a laboratory-generated shear environment to isolate injury mechanisms. Hatchery-reared fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 93–128 mm in length) were introduced into a submerged, 6.35-cm-diameter water jet at velocities ranging from 12.2 to 19.8 m·s–1, with a reference control group released at 3 m·s–1. Injuries typical of turbine-passed fish were observed and recorded. Three-dimensional trajectories were generated for four locations on each fish released. Time series of velocity, acceleration, force, jerk, and bending angle were computed from the three-dimensional trajectories. The onset of minor, major, and fatal injuries occurred at nozzle velocities of 12.2, 13.7, and 16.8 m·s–1, respectively. Opercle injuries occurred at 12.2 m·s–1 nozzle velocity, while eye injuries, bruising, and loss of equilibrium were common at velocities of 16.8 m·s–1 and above. Of the computed dynamic parameters, acceleration showed the strongest predictive power for eye and opercle injuries and overall injury level, and it may provide the best potential link between laboratory studies of fish injury, field studies designed to collect similar data in situ, and numerical modeling.

La conception et la gestion des turbines requièrent une compréhension des facteurs qui blessent ou tuent les poissons qui les traversent. Nous avons fait une analyse du suivi du mouvement sur des bandes vidéo digitales à haute vitesse et haute résolution de jeunes salmonidés exposés à des environnements d'arrachement générés en laboratoire afin d'identifier les mécanismes vulnérants. Nous avons placé des saumons quinnat (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha de 93–128 mm de longueur) élevés en pisciculture dans un jet d'eau submergé de 6,35 cm de diamètre à des vitesses variant de 12,2–19,8 m·s–1; le groupe témoin a été placé à une vitesse de 3 m·s–1. Nous avons observé et noté des blessures caractéristiques de poissons qui ont traversé des turbines. Nous avons enregistré des trajectoires tridimensionnelles à quatre sites pour chaque poisson relâché, ce qui nous a permis de calculer des séries chronologiques de vitesse, d'accélération, de force, de secousse et d'angle de repli. Les blessures mineures, majeures et mortelles commencent à se manifester aux vitesses respectives de la lance d'eau de 12,2, 13,7 et 16,8 m·s–1. Des blessures aux opercules se produisent aux vitesses de la lance de 12,2 m·s–1, alors que les blessures aux yeux, les meurtrissures et la perte d'équilibre sont courantes aux vitesses égales et supérieures à 16,8 m·s–1. Parmi les variables dynamiques calculées, l'accélération possède le pouvoir de prédiction le plus élevé pour les blessures aux yeux et aux opercules et pour le niveau global de blessures; elle fournit peut-être le meilleur lien potentiel entre les études des blessures des poissons en laboratoire, les études de terrain qui cherchent à obtenir des données semblables in situ et les modèles numériques.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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